hstm-10k_20181231.htm

 

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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED December 31, 2018

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM        TO

Commission File Number 000-27701

HEALTHSTREAM, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Tennessee

 

62-1443555

(State or other jurisdiction of

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

incorporation or organization)

 

 

 

 

 

209 10th Avenue South, Suite 450

 

37203

Nashville, Tennessee

 

(Zip Code)

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

 

 

(615) 301-3100

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities Registered Pursuant To Section 12(b) Of The Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of each Exchange on which registered

Common Stock, No Par Value

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

Securities Registered Pursuant To Section 12(g) Of The Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 of 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the Common Stock issued and outstanding and held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based upon the closing sales price for the Common Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2018 was approximately $703.7 million. All executive officers and directors of the registrant have been deemed, solely for the purpose of the foregoing calculation, to be “affiliates” of the registrant.

As of February 21, 2019, there were 32,329,409 shares of the Registrant’s common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

HEALTHSTREAM, INC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business.

 

1

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

10

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

21

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

21

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

21

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

21

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

22

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data.

 

24

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

24

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

 

37

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

 

38

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

66

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

66

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

66

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

67

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

67

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

67

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

67

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

67

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

68

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

69

 

 

Signatures

 

70

 

 

 

 


 

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PART I

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Such forward-looking statements include, among others, those statements including the words “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “believes,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “continue,” and similar language or the negative of such terms or other comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance, or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements included herein. Factors that might cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and elsewhere in this document. In addition, factors that we are not currently aware of could harm our future operating results. You should carefully review the risks described in other documents HealthStream files from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. HealthStream undertakes no obligation to publicly release any revisions to the forward-looking statements or reflect events or circumstances after the date of this document.

Item 1. Business

OVERVIEW AND HISTORY

HealthStream, Inc. (HealthStream or the Company) provides workforce and provider solutions for healthcare organizations—all designed to support the people that deliver patient care, which in turn, supports the improvement of business and clinical outcomes. Delivered primarily as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), our solutions focus on some of the most significant challenges facing the healthcare workforce and healthcare organizations today, including the need to effectively manage, retain, engage, and develop healthcare workforce talent; meet rigorous compliance requirements; and efficiently manage ongoing medical staff credentialing and privileging processes.

On February 12, 2018, the Company divested its Patient Experience (PX) business to Press Ganey Associates (Press Ganey) for $65.2 million in cash (after giving effect to the post-closing working capital adjustment). This sale of the PX business resulted in the divestiture of the Company’s patient experience solutions business segment.

With 29 years of experience, HealthStream is recognized as a leading innovator and thought leader in the healthcare industry for its healthcare workforce solutions. Using technology to enhance learning and productivity, HealthStream pioneered the delivery of online learning for hospitals’ required regulatory training as Internet-based training was first introduced. Stemming from that early success, demand for expanded learning solutions led the Company to build what is now a full eco-system of diverse workforce and clinical-focused applications, courseware, assessments, and talent management programs. At year-end 2018, with approximately 4.93 million healthcare professionals subscribing to HealthStream’s platform through their respective organizations, HealthStream is a leading provider in workforce development in the healthcare industry.

HealthStream believes that the key to quality patient care is—and always has been—the people who deliver care. To that end, the Company’s solutions support the recruiting, retaining, engaging, assessing, and developing of the healthcare workforce, including medical staff who provide patient care in our customers’ organizations.

Headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee, the Company was incorporated in 1990 and began providing its SaaS-based workforce solutions in 1999 and its provider solutions in 2012. Including additional offices in Nashville, Tennessee; Jericho, New York; Brentwood, Tennessee; San Diego, California; Chicago, Illinois; and Boulder, Colorado, HealthStream had 757 full-time and 33 part-time employees as of December 31, 2018.

INDUSTRY BACKGROUND

According to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), spending in the healthcare industry reached approximately $3.5 trillion in 2017, or 17.9% of the U.S. gross domestic product. Hospital care expenditures accounted for approximately 30.6% of the $3.5 trillion industry. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, approximately 20.1 million professionals are employed in the healthcare segment of the domestic economy, with approximately 5.2 million employed in acute-care hospitals and, according to CMS, approximately 5.3 million employed in healthcare organizations throughout the continuum of care, our primary target markets for our products. (Organizations in the continuum of care include approximately 1.5 million employees in ambulatory centers, approximately 3.5 million employees in post-acute care facilities, and approximately 300,000 employees in health & human services facilities.) As of December 31, 2018, approximately 4.93 million healthcare professionals were subscribers to our SaaS-based solutions, which include 4.82 million subscribers already implemented and 110,000 subscribers in the process of implementation.

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All of the approximately 5.2 million hospital-based healthcare professionals that work in the nation’s approximately 5,000 acute-care hospitals are required by federal and state mandates and accrediting bodies to complete training in a number of areas. This training includes safety training mandated by both the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and The Joint Commission (an independent, not-for-profit organization that accredits and certifies healthcare organizations and programs in the United States), as well as training on patient information confidentiality required under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).

In hospitals, staffing issues and personnel shortages have also contributed to the need for facility-based workforce development as well as additional assessment and competency-based training. An ongoing nursing shortage, for example, is resulting in skill gaps and rising costs. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects the need for 525,000 replacement nurses over the next several years, bringing the total number of openings for nurses due to growth and replacements to 1.05 million by 2022. We believe that offering training and education for hospital personnel is increasingly being utilized as a retention and recruitment incentive.

Many healthcare professionals use continuing education to keep abreast of the latest developments and meet licensing and certification requirements. Continuing education is required for nurses, emergency medical services personnel, first responder personnel, radiologic personnel, and physicians. Pharmaceutical and medical device companies must also provide their medical industry sales representatives with training mandated for the healthcare industry and training for new products. Such companies also provide support and content for education and training of audiences that use their products in healthcare organizations.

The healthcare education and training industry is highly fragmented, varies significantly in delivery methods (i.e., online products, live events, written materials, and manikins for simulation-based training), and is composed of a wide variety of entities competing for customers. The sheer volume of healthcare information available to satisfy continuing education needs, rapid advances in medical developments, and the time constraints that healthcare professionals face make it difficult to quickly and efficiently access the continuing education content most relevant to an individual’s practice or profession. Historically, healthcare professionals have received continuing education and training through offline publications, such as medical journals or by attending conferences and seminars. In addition, other healthcare workers and pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers’ sales and internal regulatory personnel usually fulfill their training from external vendors or internal training departments. While these approaches satisfy the ongoing education and training requirements, they are typically costly and inconvenient. In addition, live courses are often limited in the breadth of offerings and do not provide a method for tracking training completion. The results of these traditional methods, both from a business and compliance standpoint, are difficult to track and measure.

Provider data management has become more complex and arduous for healthcare organizations. Spurred by The Joint Commission Medical Staff standards and other regulatory requirements, credentialing and privileging has been transformed from a periodic review to continuous, evidence-driven analysis of professional competency and provider performance. This transformation requires ongoing, automatic monitoring of licenses, sanctions, and exclusions, as well as expanding the scope of review at initial credentialing and re-credentialing. In addition, provider enrollment processes have compounded in difficulty. For example, a single provider may need to enroll annually with some 30 to 40 payers, with each payer application often taking two to four hours to complete.

Finally, the hospital industry continues to operate under intense pressure to reduce costs as a result of reductions in government reimbursement rates and increased focus on cost containment consistent with participation of patients in managed care programs. In addition, hospitals, as well as pharmaceutical and medical device companies, continue to experience rising operating costs, coupled with increased pressure to measure and report on the outcomes of the dollars spent on training. Our products and services are designed to meet these needs by reducing healthcare organizations’ costs of training while improving learning outcomes, enhancing reporting capabilities, and supporting customers’ business objectives.

HEALTHSTREAM’S SOLUTIONS

During the year ended December 31, 2018, HealthStream’s products, services, and operations were organized into two business segments—Workforce Solutions and Provider Solutions—that collectively help healthcare organizations meet their ongoing clinical development, talent management, training, education, assessment, competency management, compliance, provider credentialing & privileging management, and provider enrollment needs. HealthStream’s solutions are provided to a wide range of customers within the healthcare industry across the spectrum of care.

 

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On February 12, 2018, the Company divested its PX business to Press Ganey for $65.2 million in cash (after giving effect to the post-closing working capital adjustment). This sale of the PX business resulted in the divestiture of the Company’s patient experience solutions segment.

HealthStream Workforce Solutions — Our workforce development solutions, which are comprised primarily of SaaS, subscription-based products, are used by healthcare organizations to meet a broad range of their clinical development, talent management, training, certification, competency assessment, performance appraisal, and additional needs. Our numerous content libraries allow customers to subscribe to a wide array of courseware, which includes content from leading healthcare and nursing associations, medical and healthcare publishers, and other content providers. Additionally, medical device companies and other industry partners offer online training support through HealthStream’s platform for their products, and they sponsor continuing education directly to healthcare workers.

At December 31, 2018, HealthStream had approximately 4.93 million “total subscribers” to its subscription-based solutions. Each individual end-user who utilizes at least one HealthStream subscription-based solution is counted as one subscriber, regardless of the number of subscriptions contracted by or for that end-user. Our subscription-based solutions include any one or a combination of our many platform applications, plus courseware, or content. For example, we deliver courseware to our customers primarily through our learning application, the HealthStream Learning Center™ (HLC), while we deliver competency management and performance appraisal tools through our applications known as the HealthStream Competency Center (HCC) and HealthStream Performance Center (HPC), respectively, which are all on our SaaS-based platform, along with a series of other applications. Not included in this “total subscriber count” are subscribers to our Provider Solutions products.

We are retiring the metrics of “implemented and total subscribers” after December 31, 2018 as these metrics do not span our entire business. Effective as of December 31, 2018, we are introducing a new measure of our progress in growing the value of our customer base, “hStream subscriptions.” As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately 1.51 million hStream subscriptions under contract. Our new hStream technologies represent the beginning of our “platform-as-a-service” capabilities, which will, over time, span our entire business.

Pricing for the HLC, HCC, HPC, and hStream is subscription-based, with fees based on the number of subscribers, courseware provided, and other factors. We offer training, implementation, and account management services to facilitate adoption of our subscription-based solutions. Fees for training are based on the time and efforts of the personnel involved. Implementation fees vary based on the size, scope, and complexity of the project. Our SaaS-based platform and subscription-based solutions are hosted in a central data center that allows authorized subscribers access to our services through the Internet, thereby eliminating the need for onsite local implementations of installed workforce development products.

Other Applications on our Platform — HealthStream offers an array of other applications on our platform, each serving a unique function for hospitals and health systems. Each application on our platform has its own value. Examples of individual applications that are offered on our platform include applications for recruiting and applicant tracking; learning; performance appraisal; compensation management; succession planning; competency management; disclosure management; clinical development; simulation-based education; and industry-sponsored training.

HealthStream Provider Solutions – Our provider solutions are offered through our business segment that is branded in the marketplace as “Verity, a HealthStream Company.” Verity, a HealthStream Company, delivers enterprise-class solutions to transform the healthcare provider experience for healthcare organizations and providers. We currently serve approximately 2,400 hospitals and 1,000 clinics, medical groups, and surgery centers in the United States. Verity, a HealthStream Company, resulted from the combination of Echo, Inc. and Morrisey Associates, Inc. (MAI), representing over 75 years of industry experience, to become a leading company delivering solutions for credentialing, enrollment, privileging, onboarding, and performance evaluation for providers. As of December 31, 2018, Verity, a HealthStream Company, had 235 employees spanning headquarters in Boulder, Colorado with satellite offices in San Diego, California, Brentwood, Tennessee, and Chicago, Illinois.

Our legacy products include EchoCredentialing™ and MSOW™, comprehensive platforms that manage medical staff credentialing and privileging processes for hospitals; EchoOneApp™, a provider enrollment platform for medical groups, which includes automatic form population directly from a continuously updated library of more than 5,000 preformatted payer form templates as well as online form integration with Council for Affordable Quality Healthcare (CAQH), CMS’ Provider Enrollment, Chain and Ownership System (PECOS); and EchoAccess™, our enterprise class platform to support hospital call centers with physician referral and provider directories functionalities.

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In January 2018, we announced the launch of our SaaS-based provider credentialing, privileging, and enrollment solution, Verity. Verity includes an intuitive, modern user experience; embedded, validated provider data; and evidence-based and best practice content. Further, Verity provides a single infrastructure supporting the entire provider lifecycle, from recruiting, application submission, validation tasks, privileging, appointments by credentialing committees, enrollment, contracting, onboarding, and performance management. As of December 31, 2018, more than two dozen healthcare organizations have contracted for Verity.

BUSINESS ACQUISITIONS

We acquired Performance Management Services, Inc. in June 2016, acquired the remaining ownership interest in Nursing Registry Consultants Corporation in July 2016, acquired MAI in August 2016, and acquired Providigm, LLC in January 2019. For additional information regarding acquisitions, please see Note 18 of the Consolidated Financial Statements and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” included elsewhere in this report.

CUSTOMERS

We provide our solutions to customers across a broad range of entities within the healthcare industry, including private, not-for-profit, and government entities, as well as pharmaceutical and medical device companies. We derive a substantial portion of our revenues from a relatively small number of customers, although no single customer represented more than 10 percent of our revenues during 2018, 2017, or 2016. Customers that have purchased or contracted for products and services from HealthStream include: CHRISTUS Health; Saint Luke’s Health System; HCA Holdings, Inc.; Community Health Systems, Inc.; McLaren Health Care Corporation; and Sutter Health.

SALES AND MARKETING

We market our products and services primarily through our direct sales teams, which are based out of our various office locations as well as remote home office locations. As of December 31, 2018, our HealthStream Workforce Solutions sales personnel consisted of 119 employees who carried sales quotas, and our Provider Solutions sales personnel consisted of 33 employees who carried sales quotas.

We conduct a variety of marketing programs to promote our products and services, including product catalogs, user groups, trade shows, internet promotion and demonstrations, telemarketing campaigns, public relations, distribution of product-specific literature, direct mail, and advertising. We have marketing teams that are responsible for these initiatives and for working with and supporting our product management and sales teams. At December 31, 2018, our marketing personnel consisted of 38 employees.

OPERATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY

We believe our ability to establish and maintain long-term customer relationships, obtain recurring sales, and develop and maintain new and existing products are dependent on the strength of our operations, customer service, product development and maintenance, training, and other support teams. As of December 31, 2018, our Workforce Solutions operations team consisted of 319 employees associated with customer support, implementation services, product development and quality assurance, training, and project management; and our Provider Solutions operations team consisted of 194 employees associated with implementation services, data integration, product development and quality assurance, credentials verification, consulting, and other functions.

Our services are designed to be reliable, secure, and scalable. Our software is a combination of proprietary and commercially available software and operating systems. Our software solutions support hosting and management of content, publication of our websites, execution of courseware, registration and tracking of users, tracking and reporting of physician credentialing and provider enrollment information, and reporting of information for both internal and external use. We designed the platforms that provide our services to allow each component to be independently scaled by adding commercially available hardware and a combination of commercially available and proprietary software components.

Our software applications, servers, and network infrastructure that deliver our services are hosted by a combination of third-party data center providers, HealthStream-owned data centers, and cloud-based infrastructure. We maintain fully redundant disaster recovery data centers which are located in geographically separate locations. Our technology equipment is maintained in secure, limited access environments, supported by redundant power, environmental conditioning, and network connectivity, and we follow industry best practices for backup and disaster recovery. Company personnel monitor all servers, networks, and systems on a continuous basis, and we employ enterprise firewall systems and data abstraction to protect our databases, customer information, and courseware library from unauthorized access.

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COMPETITION

In addition to the competing healthcare education delivery methods in the industry, we also have direct competitors. In our Workforce Solutions business segment, a number of companies offer competitive learning management products and talent management modules to the healthcare industry. We compete with companies such as Cornerstone OnDemand, Healthcare Source, SABA, Oracle, SAP, and Workday that provide their services to multiple industries, including healthcare. We also compete with large medical publishers that have operating units that focus on healthcare, such as Wolters Kluwer and Relias Learning, which is owned by Bertelsmann. In our Provider Solutions business segment, we have competition primarily from several large companies, such as Symplr and MD-Staff.

We believe our Workforce Solutions, which include both products and services that facilitate training, assessment, and development for healthcare professionals, offer a wide assortment of courseware, functionality, and applications provided on a single platform over the Internet and provide us with a competitive advantage. In our Provider Solutions business segment, we believe the scope and quality of our products, capability to connect medical staff credentialing with provider enrollment, and innovative new predictive analytics, provide us with a competitive advantage. We believe that the principal competitive factors affecting the marketing of our Workforce and Provider Solutions to the healthcare industry include:

 

features of our SaaS-based platform and applications, including reporting, management functionality, ability to manage a variety of events or modalities, courseware assignment, curriculum management, documenting competency assessments and performance appraisals, scalability, and the ability to track utilization and results;

 

scope and variety of Internet-based learning courseware available, including mandated content for OSHA, The Joint Commission, patient safety, and HIPAA requirements; competency-based content; courseware scenarios that drive simulators; courseware that provides CPR certification; and the ability of our customers to create and host their own web-enabled courseware;

 

our singular focus on the healthcare industry and our deep healthcare expertise;

 

scope and quality of professional services offered, including implementation, benchmarking, and training;

 

competitive pricing, which supports a return on investment to customers when compared to other alternative delivery methods;

 

customer service and support;

 

effectiveness of sales and marketing efforts; and

 

company reputation.

We believe these capabilities provide us with the ability to improve the quality of healthcare by assessing and developing the people who deliver care.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF THE INTERNET AND THE HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY

Regulation of the Internet and the Privacy and Security of Personal Information

The laws and regulations that govern our business may change rapidly. The following are some of the evolving areas of law that are relevant to our business:

 

Privacy and Security Laws. Federal, state, and foreign privacy and security laws and regulations restricting the collection, use, security, and disclosure of personal information limit our ability to collect information or use and disclose the information in our databases or derived from other sources to generate revenues. It may be costly to implement security or other measures designed to comply with new legislation or changes to existing laws.

 

Content Regulation. Both foreign and domestic governments have adopted and proposed laws governing content and materials transmitted over the Internet. These include laws relating to obscenity, indecency, libel and defamation. We could be liable if content created, stored, or delivered by us is determined to be in violation of these regulations.

 

Information Security Accountability Regulation. As a business associate of certain of our customers, we are required to report certain breaches of protected health information to our customers, which must in turn notify affected individuals, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and/or other governmental agencies, and, in certain situations, the media. In addition, we are subject to certain state laws that relate to privacy or the reporting of security breaches. For example, California law requires notification of security

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breaches involving personal information and medical information. We may incur costs to comply with these privacy and security requirements. Because there is little guidance related to many of these laws, it is difficult to estimate the cost of our compliance with these laws. Further, Congress has considered bills that would require companies to engage independent third parties to audit the companies’ computer information security. If the Company is required to report a breach of security or if one of the Company’s customers is required to report a breach of security by the Company, the Company’s business could be negatively impacted.

 

Sales and Use Tax. Through December 31, 2018, we collected sales, use, or other taxes on taxable transactions in states in which we have employees or have a significant level of sales activity. While HealthStream believes that this approach is appropriate, other states or foreign jurisdictions may seek to impose tax collection obligations on companies like us that engage in online commerce. If they do, these obligations could limit the growth of electronic commerce in general and limit our ability to realize profit from the sale of our services over the Internet.

Laws and regulations directly applicable to content regulation, e-commerce, Internet communications, and the privacy and security of personal information are becoming more prevalent. Congress continues to consider laws regarding Internet taxation. The dynamic nature of this regulatory environment increases the uncertainty regarding the marketplace impact of such regulation. The enactment of any additional laws or regulations may increase our cost of conducting business or otherwise harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Regulation of Education, Training, and Other Services for Healthcare Professionals

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA regulations require employers to provide training to employees to minimize the risk of injury from various potential workplace hazards. Employers in the healthcare industry are required to provide training with respect to various topics, including blood borne pathogens exposure control, laboratory safety, and tuberculosis infection control. OSHA regulations require employers to keep records of their employees’ completion of training with respect to these workplace hazards.

The Joint Commission. The Joint Commission accreditation and certification standards require employers in the healthcare industry to provide certain workplace safety and patient interaction training to employees. Training required by The Joint Commission may include programs on infection control, patient bill of rights, radiation safety, and incident reporting. Healthcare organizations are required to provide and document training on these topics to receive accreditation from The Joint Commission. In addition, The Joint Commission imposes continuing education requirements on physicians that relate to each physician’s specific staff appointments.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. HIPAA regulations require certain organizations (known as Covered Entities), including most healthcare providers and health plans, to adopt safeguards regarding the use and disclosure of certain health-related information. HIPAA regulations also require these organizations to provide reasonable and appropriate safeguards to protect the privacy, integrity and confidentiality of individually identifiable healthcare information. Covered Entities are required to establish, maintain, and provide training with regard to their policies and procedures for protecting the integrity and confidentiality of individually identifiable healthcare information and must document training on these topics to support their compliance. Certain HIPAA privacy and security requirements apply to entities (known as Business Associates) that handle individually identifiable healthcare information on behalf of Covered Entities or other Business Associates. Covered Entities, Business Associates, and their subcontractors may be directly subject to criminal and civil sanctions for violations of HIPAA privacy and security standards.

The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC). ANCC, a subsidiary of the American Nurses Association (ANA), provides individuals and organizations throughout the nursing profession with the resources they need to achieve practice excellence. ANCC’s internationally renowned credentialing programs certify nurses in specialty practice areas; recognize healthcare organizations for promoting safe, positive work environments through the Magnet Recognition Program ® and the Pathway to Excellence ® Program; and accredit providers of continuing nursing education. In addition, ANCC’s Institute for Credentialing Innovation ® offers an array of informational and educational services and products to support its core credentialing programs. ANCC certification exams validate nurses’ skills, knowledge, and abilities. More than a quarter million nurses have been certified by ANCC since 1990. More than 80,000 advanced practice nurses are currently certified by ANCC. The ANCC Magnet Recognition Program ® recognizes healthcare organizations that provide the very best in nursing care and professionalism in nursing practice. The program also provides a vehicle for disseminating best practices and strategies among nursing systems. The ANCC Magnet Recognition Program is a highly regarded standard for nursing excellence. The Pathway to Excellence ® Program recognizes the essential elements of a high standard nursing practice environment. The designation is earned by healthcare organizations that create work environments where nurses can develop professionally. The award substantiates the professional satisfaction of nurses and identifies best places to work.

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Continuing Nursing Education (CNE). State nurse practice laws authorize a state’s board of nursing to establish CNE requirements for professional nurses to maintain valid licensure. CNE credits are provided through accredited providers that have been approved by the ANCC Commission on Accreditation and/or the state board of nursing. We are an accredited provider of CNE by the ANCC. CNE requirements vary widely from state to state, with reporting generally on a bi-annual basis. In some states, the CNE requirement only applies to re-licensure of advance practice nurses, while in other states, additional CNEs may be required of this category of nurses. Board certifications (e.g., Certified Nurse Operating Room (CNOR) – certification of perioperative nursing) also require CNE credits, with certain percentages required in specific categories based on the certification type.

Continuing Medical Education (CME). State licensing boards, professional organizations, and employers require physicians to certify that they have accumulated a minimum number of CME hours to maintain their licenses. Generally, each state’s medical practice laws authorize the state’s board of medicine to establish and track CME requirements. Forty-eight state medical licensing boards currently have CME requirements, as well as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The number of CME hours required by each state ranges from 15 to 50 hours per year. Other sources of CME requirements are state medical societies and practice specialty boards. The failure to obtain the requisite amount and type of CME could result in non-renewal of the physician’s license to practice medicine and/or membership in a medical or practice specialty society. The American Medical Association (AMA) classifies CME activities as either Category 1, which includes formal CME activities, or Category 2, which includes self-designated credit for informal activities that meet certain requirements. CME providers that sponsor educational activities can only designate those activities for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Most boards of medical examiners nationwide that require CME participation specify AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Only institutions and organizations accredited to provide CME can designate an activity for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) is responsible for awarding accreditation status to state medical societies, medical schools, and other institutions and organizations that provide CME activities for a national audience of physicians. State medical societies, operating under the aegis of the ACCME, accredit institutions and organizations that provide CME activities primarily for physicians within the state or bordering states. We are recognized as an accredited provider of CME by the ACCME.

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). CMS has articulated three broad aims of its quality strategy: “Better Care. Healthier People, Healthier Communities. Smarter Spending.” To achieve this vision, CMS is committed to care that is safe, effective, timely, patient-centered, efficient, and equitable. Value-based purchasing (VBP), which links payment more directly to the quality of care provided, is a strategy that can help to transform the current payment system by rewarding providers for delivering high quality, efficient clinical care. Through a number of public reporting programs, demonstration projects, pilot programs, and other initiatives, some voluntary and some mandatory, CMS has launched VBP initiatives in hospitals, physician offices, nursing homes, home health services, and dialysis facilities. In 2017, CMS launched a comprehensive deregulatory initiative, “Meaningful Measures,” which identifies priorities for quality measurement and improvement. The framework is intended to improve patient outcomes while also reducing burdens on providers.

Promoting Interoperability Programs (formerly the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Records (EHR) Incentive Programs). CMS renamed the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs to the Promoting Interoperability Programs (The Interoperability Programs) to increase focus on the interoperability of and improving patient access to health information. The Interoperability Programs encourage eligible professionals, eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) to adopt EHR technology. Eligible hospitals can receive Medicare or Medicaid incentive payments if they adopt and demonstrate meaningful use of certified EHR technology; those that fail to demonstrate meaningful use are subject to reduced reimbursement from Medicare. In addition to requiring EHR technology, The Interoperability Programs include measures that require the exchange of information between providers and patients to improve the quality of care. By putting into action and meaningfully using an EHR system, providers may reap benefits beyond financial incentives–such as reduction in errors, availability of records and data, reminders and alerts, clinical decision support, and e-prescribing/refill automation.

Allied Disciplines. Various allied health professionals are required to obtain continuing education to maintain their licenses. For example, emergency medical services personnel may be required to attain up to 20 continuing education hours per year, all or a portion of which can be fulfilled online. These requirements vary by state and depend on the professional classification of the individual.

Regulation of Educational Program Sponsorship and Support

There are a variety of laws and regulations that affect the relationships between our medical device and pharmaceutical customers and the users of our products and services, including the sponsorship and support of educational programs. For example, the Physician Payment Sunshine Act (Sunshine Act) requires manufacturers of drugs, biological devices, and medical devices covered by Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to CMS

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payments and other transfers of value, including educational programs, given by such manufacturers to physicians and teaching hospitals, with limited exceptions. CMS regulations require manufacturers to report the physician’s name, business address, and national provider identifier as well as other information including the value, date, form, and nature of what is offered. CMS publishes the information on its website. Manufacturers that do not meet the reporting obligations are subject to significant monetary penalties.

Further, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) has issued Compliance Program Guidance for Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and for the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supply Industry (collectively, the Guidelines). The Guidelines address compliance risks raised by the support of continuing educational activities by pharmaceutical and medical device companies. The Guidelines have affected and may continue to affect the type and extent of commercial support we receive for our continuing education activities. The trade associations for the pharmaceutical and medical device industries (PhRMA and AdvaMed, respectively) have also promulgated their own codes of ethics that further restrict the interactions between industry and health care professionals. In addition, the AMA has established its own code of ethics regarding Gifts to Physicians from Industry to provide standards of conduct for the medical profession. We follow the rules and guidelines provided by ACCME, ANCC, and other continuing education accrediting bodies to ensure that our continuing education programming is free from commercial bias and consistent with the Guidelines.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

Current FDA and FTC rules and enforcement actions and regulatory policies, or those that the FDA or the FTC may develop in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to provide existing or future applications or services to our end users or obtain the necessary corporate sponsorship to do so. The FDA and the FTC regulate the form, content, and dissemination of labeling, advertising, and promotional materials, including direct-to-consumer prescription drug and medical device advertising, prepared by, or for, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, or medical device companies. The FTC regulates over-the-counter drug advertising and, in some cases, medical device advertising. Generally, regulated companies must limit their advertising and promotional materials to discussions of the FDA-approved indications. Therefore, any truthful or untruthful information that promotes the use of pharmaceutical or medical device products that is presented with our services is subject to the FDA and FTC requirements and regulatory oversight including criminal, civil and administrative actions. We believe that banner advertisements, sponsorship links, and any educational programs that lack independent editorial control that we may present with our services could be subject to FDA or FTC regulation. While the FDA and the FTC place the principal burden of compliance with advertising and promotional regulations on the advertiser, if the FDA or FTC finds that any regulated information presented with our services violates FDA or FTC regulations, they may take regulatory action against us or the advertiser or sponsor of that information. In addition, the FDA may adopt new regulatory policies that more tightly regulate the format and content of promotional information on the Internet.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND OTHER PROPRIETARY RIGHTS

To protect our proprietary rights, we rely generally on copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws; confidentiality agreements, contracts, and procedures with employees, consultants and other third parties; contractual provisions in license agreements with consultants, vendors, and customers; and use measures designed to control access to our software, documentation, and other proprietary information. We own federal trademark and service mark registrations for several marks, including, without limitation “HEALTHSTREAM”, “HEALTHSTREAM LEARNING CENTER”, “HEALTHSTREAM EPORTFOLIO”, “VERITY”, “KNOWLEDGEQ”, and “ONESOURCE.” We also have obtained registration of the “HEALTHSTREAM” mark in certain other countries. Applications for several trademarks are currently pending. However, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining registration of other trademarks for which we have applied.

The courseware we license to our customers is developed through a combination of license agreements with publishers and authors, assignments and work-for-hire arrangements with third parties, and development by employees. We require publishers, authors, and other third parties to represent and warrant that their content does not infringe on or misappropriate any third-party intellectual property rights and that they have the right to provide their content and have obtained all third-party consents necessary to do so. Our publishers, authors, and other third parties also agree to indemnify us against certain liability we might sustain due to the content they provide.

If a third party asserts a claim that we have infringed its patents or other intellectual property right, we may be required to redesign our products or enter into royalty or licensing agreements. In addition, we license technologies from third parties for incorporation into our services. Royalty and licensing agreements with these third parties may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Additionally, despite the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, our efforts may not be adequate. Third parties may infringe or misappropriate our intellectual property, and such violations of our intellectual property are difficult to detect and police. Competitors may also independently develop technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to the technologies we employ in our products or services. If we

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are unable to safeguard our proprietary rights adequately, our competitors could offer similar services, potentially significantly harming our competitive position and decreasing our revenues.

We hold inbound licenses for certain intellectual property that is used internally, and in some cases, utilized in HealthStream’s products or services. While it may be necessary in the future to seek or renew licenses relating to various aspects of our products and services, we believe, based upon past experience and industry practice, such licenses generally can be obtained on commercially reasonable terms. We believe our operations and products and services are not materially dependent on any single license or other agreement with any third party.

 

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

The Company files reports with the SEC, including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and other reports from time to time. The SEC maintains an Internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains the reports, proxy, and other filings made by us electronically. Our website address is www.healthstream.com. Please note that our website address is provided as an inactive textual reference only. We make available, free of charge through our website, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, all amendments to those reports, and other filings made by us with the SEC, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information provided on our website is not part of this report, and is therefore not incorporated by reference unless such information is otherwise specifically referenced elsewhere in this report.

OUR EMPLOYEES

As of December 31, 2018, we employed 757 full-time and 33 part-time persons. Our success will depend in large part upon our ability to attract and retain qualified employees. We face competition in this regard from other companies, but we believe that we maintain good relations with our employees. We are not subject to any collective bargaining agreements.

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT

The following is a brief summary of the business experience of each of the executive officers of the Company. Executive Officers of the Company are elected by the Board of Directors and serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. The following table sets forth certain information regarding the executive officers of the Company:

 

Name

  

Age

  

Position

Robert A. Frist, Jr.

  

51

  

Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors

J. Edward Pearson

  

56

  

President, Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Michael Sousa

  

50

  

Senior Vice President and President, Verity, Inc., a HealthStream Company

Gerard M. Hayden, Jr.

  

64

  

Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

Jeffrey D. Cunningham            

  

52

  

Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer

Michael M. Collier

  

43

  

Senior Vice President, Business Development and General Counsel

Trisha L. Coady

 

43

 

Senior Vice President and General Manager, Clinical Solutions

M. Scott McQuigg

 

51

 

Senior Vice President, hStream Solutions

Robert A. Frist, Jr., one of our co-founders, has served as our chief executive officer and chairman of the board of directors since 1990 and served as our president since 2001. On May 15, 2018, following the appointment of Mr. Pearson as the president of the Company, Mr. Frist no longer served in such position. Mr. Frist is the company’s chief operating decision maker. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Business with concentrations in Finance, Economics, and Marketing from Trinity University.

J. Edward Pearson joined the Company in June 2006 as senior vice president and was promoted to chief operating officer in 2011 and to president on May 15, 2018. He earned a Bachelor of Business Administration in Accounting from Middle Tennessee State University.

Michael Sousa joined the Company in October 2004 and served as senior vice president of sales from January 2010 to June 2014. In June 2014, he was promoted to senior vice president of business development. In September 2015, he was named president of Echo, Inc. (now known as Verity, Inc., a HealthStream Company), HealthStream’s Provider Solutions business segment, while continuing to serve as a senior vice president of the Company. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree from Boston College and a Master of Business Administration from Boston University.

Gerard M. Hayden, Jr. joined the Company as senior vice president and chief financial officer in May 2008. He earned a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Notre Dame and a Master of Science from Northeastern University. As previously

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disclosed on the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by us on October 22, 2018, Mr. Hayden intends to resign as an officer of the Company following the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Jeffrey D. Cunningham joined the Company in July 2017 as senior vice president and chief technology officer. Prior to joining the Company, he founded and served as chief technology officer and chief strategy officer for Informatics Corporation of America for twelve years. He earned a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science from University of North Texas.

Michael M. Collier joined the Company in August 2011 as vice president and general counsel, began serving as the vice president of business development and general counsel shortly thereafter, and was promoted to senior vice president of business development and general counsel in July 2017. Mr. Collier also serves as the Company’s Corporate Secretary. He graduated with bachelors and masters degrees in Philosophy and Religion from University of Tennessee-Knoxville and earned a Juris Doctorate (J.D.) from University of California, Berkeley – School of Law.

Trisha L. Coady joined the Company in January 2014 and served as associate vice president and subsequently vice president and general manager of clinical development solutions from June 2015 to November 2018. In November 2018, she was promoted to senior vice president and general manager of clinical solutions. She earned a Science in Nursing degree from Université de Moncton.

M. Scott McQuigg joined the Company in January 2019 as senior vice president of hStream solutions. Prior to joining the Company, he co-founded and served as chief executive officer for GoNoodle for thirteen years. Before this role, he co-founded and served as chief executive officer of HealthLeaders.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

We believe that the risks and uncertainties described below are the principal material risks facing the Company as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In the future, we may become subject to additional risks that are not currently known to us. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and/or prospects could be materially and adversely affected by the occurrence of any of the following risks and uncertainties. Additional risks or uncertainties not presently know to us, or that we currently deem immaterial, also may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. The trading price of our common stock could also decline due to the occurrence of any of the following risks, as well as risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial.

Risks Related to Our Business Model

We may be unable to effectively execute our growth strategy which could have an adverse effect on our business and competitive position in the industry.

Our business strategy includes increasing our market share and presence through sales to new customers, additional sales to existing customers, introductions of new products and services, and maintaining strong relationships with our existing customers. Some of the risks that we may encounter in executing our growth strategy include:

expenses, delays, and difficulties in identifying and developing new products or services and integrating such new products or services into our existing organization;

inability to leverage or evolve our customer and partner facing technology platform;

inability to leverage our operational and financial systems and processes sufficiently to support our growth;

inability to generate sufficient revenue from our products to offset investment costs;

inability to effectively identify, manage, and exploit existing and emerging market opportunities;

inability to maintain our existing customer relationships;

increased competition from new and existing competitors;

lengthy sales cycles, or customers delaying purchasing decisions or payments due to economic conditions;

reduced spending by customers within our target markets;

failure of the market for our products and services to grow to a sufficient size or at a sufficient rate; and

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inability to hire sufficient number of qualified employees to execute and support the growth of the Company.

If any of these risks are realized, our business, and our competitive position in the industry, could suffer.

We may be unable to effectively identify, complete or integrate the operations of acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements or other strategic investments, which would inhibit our ability to execute upon our growth strategy.

As part of our growth strategy, we actively review possible acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or strategic investments that complement or enhance our business. However, we may be unable to source or complete future acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments on acceptable terms, or at all. In addition, if we finance acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic initiatives by issuing equity securities, our existing shareholders may be diluted, which could affect the market price of our stock. As a result, if we fail to properly evaluate and execute acquisitions and investments, our performance or prospects may be seriously harmed. Some of the risks that we may encounter in implementing our acquisition, joint venture, collaborative arrangement, or strategic investment strategies include:

expenses, delays, or difficulties in identifying and integrating acquired companies or joint venture operations, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments into our organization and to otherwise realize expected synergies in connection therewith;

inability to retain personnel associated with acquired companies, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements or other strategic investments;

loss of material customers and other key business relations associated with acquired companies, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments;

diversion of management’s attention from other initiatives and/or day-to-day operations to effectively execute our growth strategy;

the incorporation of products associated with acquired companies, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments into our product lines;

the increasing demands on our operational and informational technology systems which may arise from any such acquired companies or joint venture operations, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments;

potentially insufficient internal controls over financial activities or financial reporting at any such acquired company that could impact us on a consolidated basis;

in the case of joint ventures and strategic investments, the financial performance of those entities may have a negative impact on our financial performance; and

an inability to generate sufficient revenue, profit, and cash flow from acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments to offset our investment costs.

Moreover, although we conduct what we believe to be a prudent level of investigation regarding the operating and financial condition of acquired companies, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments, an unavoidable level of risk remains regarding the operating performance, financial condition, and potential liabilities of these businesses, and we may not be able to fully assess these risks until a transaction has been completed.

Our ability to accurately forecast our financial performance for certain products and services may be hindered by customer scheduling.

While the revenue we receive from particular products and services in our subscription business may be predictable during the term of the applicable contract, the performance of our subscription business may become more subject to fluctuations between quarterly periods as our solution offerings diversify and become more sophisticated. Certain project-based products, such as consulting, content development, and professional services, are subject to the customers’ involvement in the provision of the product or service. The timing and magnitude of these project-based product and service contracts may vary widely from quarter to quarter and year to year, and thus may affect our ability to accurately forecast our financial performance. In addition, some products, including those in our Workforce Development and Provider Solutions segments, can require significant implementation lead times and resources, and may require a level of change management efforts from our clients, which may also impact our ability to accurately forecast our financial performance. Additionally, as we expand our revenue generating model such that third-parties may pay network connection fees based on sales they make, our ability to forecast revenue from such arrangements may not be predictable.

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Our ability to accurately forecast our financial performance may be affected by lengthy and widely varying sales cycles.

The period from our initial contact with a potential customer and their first purchase of our solution typically ranges from three to nine months, and in some cases has extended much further. The range in the sales cycle can be impacted by multiple factors, including an increasing trend towards more formal request for proposal processes and more competition within our industry, as well as formal budget timelines which impact timing of purchases by target customers. New products, including those that may compete with or replace our former product offerings, tend to have a longer and more unpredictable revenue ramp period because of varying customer adoption rates. As a result of these factors, we have only limited ability to forecast the timing and type of initial sales. This, in turn, makes it more difficult to forecast our financial performance. Additionally, as we expand our revenue generating model such that third-parties may pay network connection fees based on sales they make, our ability to forecast revenue from such arrangements may not be predictable.

We may not be able to maintain our competitive position against current and potential competitors, especially those with significantly greater financial, technical, marketing, or other resources.

Several of our competitors and many potential competitors have longer operating histories and significantly greater financial, technical, marketing, or other resources than we do. We encounter direct competition from both large and small companies focused on providing workforce and provider solutions to the healthcare industry. Given the profile and growth of the healthcare industry and the ongoing need for training, simulation, credentialing, and other information products and services, it is likely that additional competitors will emerge. We believe we maintain a competitive advantage against our competitors by offering a comprehensive array of products and services; however, our lack of market diversification resulting from our concentration on the healthcare industry may make us susceptible to losing market share to our competitors who also offer solutions, and in some cases a more robust suite of solutions, to a cross-section of industries. These companies may be able to respond more quickly than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. Further, most of our customer agreements are for terms ranging from one to three years, with no obligation to renew. The terms of these agreements may enable customers to more easily shift to one of our competitors.

The failure to maintain and strengthen our relationships with strategic partners or significant changes in the terms of the agreements we have with them may have an adverse impact on our ability to successfully market our products and services.

We have entered into contracts with strategic partners, including content, technology, and retail channel vendors. Our ability to increase the sales of our products and services depends in part upon maintaining and strengthening relationships with these current and future strategic partners. Most of these contracts are on a non-exclusive basis. Certain strategic partners may offer products and services from multiple distinct companies, including, in some instances, products or services which may compete with our products and services. Moreover, under contracts with some of our strategic partners, we may be bound by provisions that restrict our ability to market and sell our products and services to certain potential customers. The success of these contractual arrangements will depend in part upon the strategic partners’ own competitive, marketing, and strategic considerations, including the relative advantages for such strategic partners in using alternative products being developed and marketed by them or our competitors, rather than our products and services.

We cannot guarantee that we will be able to maintain and strengthen our relationships with strategic partners, that we will be successful in effectively integrating such partners’ products and technology into our own, or that such relationships will be successful in generating additional revenue. If any of these strategic partners have negative experiences with our products and services, or seek to amend or terminate the financial or other terms of the contracts or arrangements we have with them, we may need to increase our organizational focus on the types of services and solutions they sell and alter our development, integration, and/or distribution strategies, which may divert our planned efforts and resources from other projects.

Lastly, we could be subject to claims and liability, as a result of the activities, products, or services of these strategic partners, and/or our acts or omissions with regard to these strategic partners. Even if these claims do not result in liability to us, investigating and defending these claims could be expensive, time-consuming and result in suspension of or interference with certain offerings to our clients and/or adverse publicity that could harm our business.  

We may not be able to retain distribution rights from our content and technology partners, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Most of our agreements with content and technology providers are for initial terms of three or more years. These partners may choose not to renew their agreements with us or may terminate their agreements early if we do not fulfill our contractual obligations. If our partners terminate or fail to renew their agreements with us on as favorable terms, such as a reduction in our revenue share arrangement, it could result in a reduction in the number of courses and solutions we are able to distribute, declines in the number of subscribers to our platforms, and decreased revenues. Most of our agreements with our content partners are non-exclusive, and our competitors offer, or could offer, content or solutions that are similar to or the same as ours. If our current partners offer or otherwise make available their products and services to users or our competitors on

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more favorable terms than those offered to us, or increase our license fees, our competitive position, revenue, and our profit margins and prospects could be harmed. In addition, the failure by our partners to deliver high-quality content and technology, and to revise their content and technology, in response to user demand and evolving healthcare advances and trends could result in customer dissatisfaction and inhibit our ability to attract and retain subscribers.

We may not be able to develop new products and services, or enhancements to our existing products and services, or be able to achieve widespread acceptance of new products, services or features, or keep pace with technological developments.

Our growth strategy depends in part on our ability to generate revenue growth through sales to new customers as well as increasing sales of additional subscriptions and other products and services to existing customers. Our identification of additional features, content, products and services may not result in timely development of complementary products. In addition, the success of certain new products and services may be dependent on continued growth in our customer base. Furthermore, we are not able to accurately predict the volume or speed with which existing and new customers may adopt such new products and services. Because healthcare technology continues to change and evolve, we may be unable to accurately predict and develop new products, features, content and other products to address the needs of the healthcare industry. Further, the new products, services and enhancements we develop may introduce significant defects into or otherwise negatively impact our technology platform. While all new products and services are subject to testing and quality control, all software and software-based services are subject to errors and malfunctions. If we release new products, services and/or enhancements with bugs, defects or errors or that cause bugs, defects or errors in existing products, it could result in lost revenues and/or reduced ability to meet contractual obligations and would be detrimental to our business and reputation. If new products, features, or content are not accepted or integrated by new or existing customers, we may not be able to recover the cost of this development and our financial performance will be harmed. Continued growth of our customer population is dependent on our ability to continue to provide relevant products and services in a timely manner. The success of our business will depend on our ability to continue providing our products and services as well as enhancing our content, product and service offerings that address the needs of healthcare organizations.

We may be unable to continue to license our third party software, on which a portion of our product and service offerings rely, or we may experience errors in this software, which could increase our costs and decrease our revenue.

We use technology components in some of our products that have been licensed from third parties. Future licenses to these technologies may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. The loss of or inability to obtain or maintain any of these licenses could result in delays in the introduction of new products and services or could force us to discontinue offering portions of solutions until equivalent technology, if available, is identified, licensed and integrated. The operation of our products would be impaired if errors occur in third party technology or content that we incorporate, and we may incur additional costs to repair or replace the defective technology or content. It may be difficult for us to correct any errors in third party products because the products are not within our control. Accordingly, our revenue could decrease and our costs could increase in the event of any errors in this technology. Furthermore, we may become subject to legal claims related to licensed technology based on product liability, infringement of intellectual property or other legal theories. Even if these claims do not result in liability to us, investigating and defending these claims could be expensive and time-consuming, and could result in suspension of or interference with certain offerings to our clients and/or adverse publicity that could harm our business.

Financial Risks

A significant portion of our revenue is generated from a relatively small number of customers.

We derive a substantial portion of our revenues from a relatively small number of customers. A termination or material modification of our agreements with any of our significant customers or a failure of these customers to renew their contracts on favorable terms, or at all, could have an adverse effect on our business.

A significant portion of our business is subject to renewal each year. Therefore, renewals have a significant impact on our revenue and operating results.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, approximately 95% of our net revenue was derived from SaaS-based subscriptions and software licensing agreements. Our product and service contracts typically range from one to five years in length, and customers are not obligated to renew their contract with us after their contract term expires; in fact, some customers have elected not to renew their contract. In addition, our customers may renew at a lower pricing or activity level. Our customers’ renewals may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including but not limited to their dissatisfaction with our service, a dissipation or cessation of their need for one or more of our products or services, pricing, or competitive

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product offerings. If we are unable to renew a substantial portion of the contracts that are up for renewal or maintain our pricing, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We may be unable to accurately predict the timing of revenue recognition from sales activity as it is often dependent on achieving certain events or performance milestones, and this inability could impact our operating results.

Our ability to recognize revenue is dependent upon several factors in order for us to implement customers on our subscription-based platform and platform applications. If customers do not provide us with the information required to complete implementations in a timely manner, our ability to recognize revenue may be delayed, which could adversely impact our operating results. Some products, including several in our Provider Solutions segment, can require significant implementation lead times and the rate at which customer orders move from backlog to revenue generation in connection with these products may significantly affect the timing of revenue recognition.

Because we recognize revenue from subscriptions for our products and services over the term of the subscription period, downturns or upturns in sales may not be immediately reflected in our operating results.

During the year ended December 31, 2018, we recognized approximately 95% of our revenue from customers monthly over the terms of their subscription or licensing agreements, which have initial contract terms ranging from one to five years. As a result, much of the revenue we report in each quarter is related to subscription or licensing agreements entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed subscription or licensing agreements in any one quarter will not necessarily be fully reflected in the revenue in that quarter and will negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. In addition, we may be unable to adjust our cost structure to reflect this reduced revenue. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in sales and market acceptance of our products and services may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. Finally, our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers must be recognized over the applicable subscription term.

We may not be able to meet our strategic business objectives unless we obtain additional financing, which may not be available to us on favorable terms, or at all.

We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, cash generated from operations, and available borrowings under our revolving credit facility will be sufficient to meet anticipated working capital needs, new product development and capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months. However, we may need to raise additional funds in order to:

 

develop new, or enhance existing, products, services, and technology;

 

respond to competitive pressures;

 

finance working capital requirements;

 

acquire or invest in complementary businesses, technologies, content or products; or

 

otherwise effectively execute our growth strategy.

At December 31, 2018, we had approximately $168.8 million in cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities. We also have up to $50.0 million of availability under our Revolving Credit Facility, subject to certain covenants, which expires in November 2020. We expect to incur approximately $35 million of capital expenditures, software development and content purchases during 2019, which includes approximately $15 million associated with our office consolidation and relocation to a new central location in Nashville, Tennessee.

We actively review possible business acquisitions to complement or enhance our products and services, and we completed the acquisition of Providigm, LLC in January 2019. We may not have adequate cash and investments or availability under our Revolving Credit Facility to consummate one or more of these acquisitions. We cannot assure you that if we need additional financing that it will be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available or are not available on acceptable terms, our ability to fund expansion, take advantage of available opportunities, develop or enhance services or products, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures would be significantly limited. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity or convertible debt securities, the percentage ownership of our existing shareholders may be reduced.

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We have significant goodwill, identifiable intangible assets, and long-lived assets recorded on our balance sheet that may be subject to impairment losses that would reduce our reported assets and earnings.

There are inherent uncertainties in the estimates, judgments and assumptions used in assessing recoverability of goodwill, intangible assets, and long-lived assets. Economic, legal, regulatory, competitive, reputational, contractual, and other factors could result in future declines in the operating results of our business units or market values that do not support the carrying value of goodwill, identifiable intangible assets, and long-lived assets. If the value of our goodwill, intangible assets, or long-lived assets is impaired, accounting rules require us to reduce their carrying value and report an impairment charge, which would reduce our reported assets and earnings for the period in which an impairment is recognized.

We may be affected by healthcare reform efforts and other changes in the healthcare industry that impact our clients.

Our clients are concentrated in the healthcare industry, which is subject to changing regulatory, economic, and political conditions. In the past two years, we have experienced an increase in bankruptcies among our customers. This decrease in creditworthiness among certain of our customers along with other economic challenges facing the healthcare sector caused us to record bad debt expense of $1.0 million and $1.6 million in 2018 and 2017, respectively. Continuance or escalation of this development could result in our inability to collect amounts owed from existing clients and decrease our ability to gain new clients, which could adversely impact our revenue, results of operations, and ability to execute on our growth strategy.

The U.S. Congress and certain state legislatures have passed or are considering laws and regulations intended to result in major changes to the U.S. healthcare system. The most prominent of these reform efforts, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Healthcare and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, Affordable Care Act), was designed to increase access to affordable health insurance for U.S. citizens and improve quality of care, but it also has reduced government program spending and imposed operating costs and changes on many of our clients.

However, efforts by the presidential administration and certain members of Congress to repeal or make significant changes to the Affordable Care Act, its implementation and/or its interpretation have cast considerable uncertainty on the future of the law. For example, effective January 1, 2019, Congress eliminated the financial penalty associated with the individual mandate. In addition, final rules issued in 2018 expand the availability of association health plans and allow the sale of short-term, limited-duration health plans, neither of which are required to cover all of the essential health benefits mandated by the Affordable Care Act. These changes may impact the number of individuals that elect to purchase health insurance or the scope of such coverage, if purchased. Because the penalty associated with the individual mandate was eliminated, a federal judge in Texas ruled in December 2018 that the entire law was unconstitutional. However, the law remains in place pending appeal. There is uncertainty regarding whether, when, and how the Affordable Care Act will be further changed, the ultimate impact of court challenges, and what alternative provisions, if any, will be enacted, the timing of enactment and implementation of alternative provisions, the impact of alternative provisions on providers as well as other healthcare industry participants, and how the law will be interpreted and implemented. Changes by Congress or government agencies could eliminate or alter provisions beneficial to us while leaving in place provisions reducing our reimbursement. Some of the recent changes in the healthcare industry have driven consolidation, particularly among health insurance providers. Other industry participants, such as large employer groups and their affiliates, may intensify competitive pressures. Efforts to repeal or change the Affordable Care Act or implement other initiatives intended to reform healthcare delivery, coverage, and/or financial systems may have an adverse effect on our clients. For example, some members of Congress have proposed significantly expanding the coverage of government-funded programs. Any such regulatory developments, as well as other healthcare-related or other developments that adversely impact the business or financial condition of our clients, could reduce the amount of business we receive from such clients and thus have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

We may not be able to demonstrate compliance with Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404 in a timely manner, and the correction of any deficiencies identified during annual audits may be costly and could harm our business.

Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404 requires our management to report on, and requires our independent public accounting firm to attest to, the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. The rules governing the standards to be met are complex and may require significant process review, documentation and testing, as well as remediation efforts for any identified deficiencies. This process of review, documentation, testing and remediation may result in increased expenses and require significant attention from management and other internal and external resources. These requirements may also extend to acquired entities and our efforts to integrate those operations into our system of internal controls. Any material weaknesses identified during this process may preclude us from asserting the effectiveness of our internal controls. This may negatively affect our stock price if we cannot effectively remediate the issues identified in a timely manner.

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Changes in accounting standards issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, could adversely effect our balance sheet, revenue, and results of operations, and could require a significant expenditure of time, attention and resources, especially by senior management.

Our accounting and financial reporting policies conform to GAAP, which are periodically revised and/or expanded. The application of accounting principles is also subject to varying interpretations over time. Accordingly, we are required to adopt new or revised accounting standards or comply with revised interpretations that are issued from time to time by various parties, including accounting standard setters and those who interpret the standards, such as the FASB and the SEC and our independent registered public accounting firm. Changes to regulations concerning revenue recognition could require us to alter our current revenue accounting practices and cause us to either defer revenue into a future period, or to recognize lower revenue in a current period. Likewise, changes to regulations concerning expense recognition could require us to alter our current expense accounting practices and cause us to defer recognition of expense into a future period, or to recognize increased expenses in a current period. Such changes could also cause us to alter the manner in which we contract for, sell, and incentivize sales of products and services. Changes to either revenue recognition or expense recognition accounting practices could affect our financial results.

Risks Related to Sales, Marketing and Competition

Our operating margins could be affected if our ongoing refinement to pricing models for our products and services is not accepted by our customers and the market.

We continue to make changes in the pricing of our product and service offerings so as to increase revenue and meet the needs of our customers. We cannot predict whether the current pricing of our products and services, or any ongoing refinements we make will be accepted by our existing customer base or by prospective customers. If our customers and potential customers decide not to accept our current or future pricing or product and service offerings, it could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Risks Related to Operations

We may be unable to adequately develop our systems, processes and support in a manner that will enable us to meet the demand for our services.

We have provided our online products and services for over 19 years and continue to expand our ability to provide our solutions on both a subscription and transactional basis over the Internet or otherwise. Our future success will depend on our ability to effectively develop and maintain our infrastructure, including procurement of additional hardware and software, and to implement the services, including customer support, necessary to meet the demand for our products and services. Our inability from time to time to successfully develop the necessary systems and implement the necessary services on a timely basis may result in our customers experiencing delays, interruptions and/or errors in their service. Such delays or interruptions may cause customers to become dissatisfied with our service and move to competing providers of workforce development and provider solutions services. If this happens, our reputation, results of operations, and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Our business operations could be significantly disrupted if we lose members of, or fail to attract and integrate new members to, our management team.

Our future performance is substantially dependent on the continued services of our management team and our ability to attract, retain and motivate them. The loss of the services of any of our officers or senior managers, or the inability to attract additional officers or senior managers as appropriate, could harm our business, as we may not be able to find suitable replacements. We do not have employment agreements with any of our key personnel, other than our chief executive officer, and we do not maintain any “key person” life insurance policies.

We may not be able to attract, hire and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees and, as a result, we may not be able to effectively execute our growth strategy or maintain the quality of our services.

Our future success will depend on our ability to attract, train, motivate, and retain other highly skilled technical, managerial, marketing, sales, and customer support personnel. Competition for certain personnel is intense, especially for software developers, web designers, user experience and interaction designers, and sales personnel, and we may be unable to successfully attract sufficiently qualified personnel. We have experienced in the past, and continue to experience, difficulty hiring qualified personnel in a timely manner for these positions. The pool of qualified technical personnel, in particular, is limited in Nashville, Tennessee, where our headquarters are located. Similar challenges exist within our Provider Solutions segment in our locations in San Diego, California, and Boulder, Colorado. We anticipate needing to continue to maintain or

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increase the size of our staff to support our anticipated growth, without compromising the quality of our offerings or customer service. Our inability to locate, attract, hire, integrate and retain qualified personnel in sufficient numbers may reduce the quality of our services and impair our ability to grow and adversely impact our financial performance.

We may not be able to upgrade our hardware and software technology infrastructure quickly enough to effectively meet demand for our services or our operational needs.

We must continue to obtain reasonably priced, commercially available hardware, operating software, and hosting services, as well as continue to enhance our software and systems to accommodate the increased use of our platform, the increased content in our library, the expanding amount and type of data we store on behalf of our customers, and the resulting increase in operational demands on our business. Decisions about hardware and software enhancements are based in part on estimated forecasts of the growth in demand for our services. This growth in demand for our services is difficult to forecast and the potential audience for our services is widespread and dynamic. If we are unable to increase the data storage and processing capacity of our systems at least as fast as the growth in demand, our customers may encounter delays or disruptions in their service. Unscheduled downtime or reduced response time of our platforms could harm our business and also could discourage current and potential customers from using or continuing to use our services and reduce future revenue. If we are unable to acquire, update, or enhance our technology infrastructure and systems quickly enough to effectively meet increased operational demands on our business, that may also have an adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. Further, as we develop our platforms and rely on ever changing and improving technologies, we may be impeded by our customers’ inability to adopt new technologies, such as web browsers, upon which new platform enhancements may be based.    

Our network infrastructure and computer systems and software may fail.

An unexpected event (including but not limited to a cyber-security incident, telecommunications failure, fire, earthquake, or other catastrophic loss) at our Internet service providers’ facilities or at our on-site data center facilities could cause the loss of critical data and prevent us from offering our products and services for an unknown period of time. System downtime could negatively affect our reputation and ability to sell our products and services and may expose us to significant third-party claims. Our cyber liability and business interruption insurance may not adequately compensate us for losses that may occur. In addition, we rely on third parties to securely store our archived data, house our web server and network systems and connect us to the Internet. While our service providers have planned for certain contingencies, the failure by any of these third parties to provide these services satisfactorily and our inability to find suitable replacements would impair our ability to access archives and operate our systems and software, and our customers may encounter delays. Such disruptions could harm our reputation and cause customers to become dissatisfied and possibly take their business to a competing provider, which would adversely affect our financial performance.

We may lose users and lose revenue if our security measures fail.

If the security measures that we use to protect customer or personal information are ineffective, we may lose users of our services, which could reduce our revenue, tarnish our reputation, and subject us to significant liability. We rely on security and authentication technology licensed from third parties. With this technology, we perform real-time credit card authorization and verification, as well as the encryption of other selected secure customer data. We cannot predict whether these security measures could be circumvented by new technological developments. Further, the audit processes, penetration and vulnerability testing, and controls used within our production platforms, may not be sufficient to identify and prevent errors or deliberate misuse. In addition, our software, databases and servers may be vulnerable to computer viruses, physical or electronic attacks, and similar disruptions. We may need to spend significant resources to protect against security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by any breaches. We cannot assure that we can prevent all security breaches.

A data breach or security incident could result in a loss of confidential data, give rise to remediation and other expenses, expose us to liability under HIPAA, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH), foreign data privacy regulations, federal and state privacy laws, consumer protection laws, common law theories or other laws, subject us to litigation and federal and state governmental inquiries, damage our reputation, and otherwise be disruptive to our business.

We collect and store sensitive information, including intellectual property, individually identifiable health information, provider credentialing and privileging data, and other personally identifiable information, on our networks. The secure maintenance of this information is critical to our business operations. As a result, the continued development and enhancement of controls, processes, and practices designed to protect our information systems from attack, damage, or unauthorized access remain a priority for us. We have implemented multiple layers of security measures to protect this confidential data through technology, processes, and our people, and our defenses are monitored and routinely tested internally and by external parties. Despite these efforts, a data breach or security incident could result from a variety of circumstances and events, including third-party action, system errors, employee negligence or error, malfeasance, computer

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viruses, failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software, databases, or components thereof, power outages, hardware failures, telecommunication failures, user errors, catastrophic events, or threats from malicious persons and groups, new vulnerabilities, and advanced new attacks against information systems. In addition, third party IT vendors may not provide us with fixes or updates to hardware or software in a manner as to avoid an unauthorized loss or disclosure or to address a known vulnerability, which may subject us to known threats or downtime as a result of those delays.

There can be no assurance that we will not be subject to data incidents that bypass our security measures, result in loss of confidential information, or disrupt our information systems or business. Data incidents could result in interruptions, delays, loss, access, misappropriation, and disclosure or corruption of data and could damage our reputation. In addition, data incidents could expose us and our customers to liability under privacy, security, and consumer protection laws, such as HIPAA, or litigation under these or other laws, including common law theories, and subject us to federal and state governmental inquiries or enforcement, especially if a large number of individuals are affected or if the compromised information is highly sensitive. Like many other organizations, we have experienced data incidents from time to time in the course of our business and handled these incidents in accordance with our internal policies and understanding of the applicable laws.

As cyber and other threats to confidential information continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any security vulnerabilities. The occurrence of a data incident and the resulting potential costs and liabilities could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations and harm our business reputation.

We may experience errors or omissions in our software products or processes, including those that deliver provider credentialing, privileging and payer enrollment services for our hospitals and medical practice customers, and those that administer and report on hospital performance, and these errors could result in action taken against us that could harm our business.

Hospitals and medical practices use our credentialing, privileging, and payer enrollment software to manage, validate, and maintain their providers’ credentials and authorization to practice in a particular facility, and to maintain authorization to perform care covered by insurance providers. In some instances, we rely on sources outside the Company for information that we use in our credentialing and privileging products. If errors or omissions occur that inaccurately validate or invalidate the credentials of a provider, or improperly deny or authorize a provider to practice in a hospital or medical practice, these errors or omissions could result in litigation brought against us either by our customers, the provider, or other interested parties. For example, an important element in a malpractice case brought against a hospital or other provider could be the validation of proper credentialing for the provider, and any errors or omissions in our products that provide these services could subject us to claims. Further, a list of providers’ privileges may be made available to the general public by hospitals and medical practices, and errors in credentialing and privileging may result in damage to the hospital, medical practice, or provider.

We may be required to indemnify against such claims, and defending against any such claims could be costly, and time-consuming and could negatively affect our business.

The expiration of our legacy agreements with Laerdal could adversely affect our business and future results of operations.

Our legacy agreements with Laerdal (Legacy Agreements) for the HeartCode and Resuscitation Quality Improvement (RQI) products expired pursuant to their terms on December 31, 2018 and will not be renewed. Revenues associated with sales of HeartCode and RQI products pursuant to the Legacy Agreements have been significant in recent years, although margins on such products have been lower than HealthStream’s average margin. Revenues from HeartCode and RQI pursuant to the Legacy Agreements will run out to zero dollars in the first quarter of 2021, and will decline prior thereto as we conclude the fulfillment of HeartCode and RQI purchases made prior to December 31, 2018.

While we have entered into agreements to market, sell, and deliver new resuscitation programs to our customers (i.e., other than HeartCode and RQI), including through our collaboration with the American Red Cross, there is no assurance that we will be successful in efforts to market, sell, or deliver such products. To the extent we are not successful in these efforts and new resuscitation programs do not generate revenue and/or earnings in a manner that supplants the impact of the Legacy Agreements, our revenue and results of operations will be adversely affected.

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There are certain risks associated with the sale of our Patient Experience business which was completed in February 2018.

In February 2018, we completed the sale of our PX business to Press Ganey. As a result of this transaction, we are now highly dependent on the success of our two remaining business segments, our workforce solutions segment and provider solutions segment. In addition, in connection with the sale of our PX business to Press Ganey, we agreed to indemnify Press Ganey with respect to certain matters, including the breach of our representations, warranties, and covenants contained in the agreements related to this transaction as well as in connection with the performance of certain transition services provided for a period of time following the closing. A material breach or inaccuracy of these representations, warranties, and covenants in any of the agreements related to those transactions could lead to a claim against us, which could require us to pay substantial sums and incur related costs and expenses.

In addition, many of the customer contracts associated with the PX business were shared contracts (Shared Contracts) under which we have provided services in connection with our existing businesses and under which we previously (prior to the closing of the sale of our Patient Experience business) provided services in connection with the Patient Experience business. Under the terms of our agreement with Press Ganey, these Shared Contracts were retained by us; however, following the completion of such disposition, Press Ganey has provided services to our customers under these Shared Contracts to the extent related to the Patient Experience business (and is entitled to receive the benefit of payments made by our customers in connection therewith) until such time that Press Ganey has obtained a replacement contract and/or an assignment with respect to the portion of the Shared Contract that relates to the Patient Experience business. As a result, if Press Ganey is unable to satisfy its obligations under the Shared Contracts or if other issues arise in connection this arrangement, we could incur operational or reputational losses that may adversely affect our results of operations or business.

Risks Related to Government Regulation, Content and Intellectual Property

Government regulation may subject us to investigation, litigation, or liability or require us to change the way we do business.

The laws and regulations that govern our business change rapidly. Evolving areas of law that are relevant to our business include privacy and security laws, proposed encryption laws, content regulation, information security accountability regulation, sales and use tax laws, and regulations and attempts to regulate activities on the Internet. For example, we are directly subject to certain requirements of the HIPAA privacy and security regulations. In addition, we are required through contracts with our customers known as “business associate agreements” to protect the privacy and security of certain personal and health related information. Further, government laws and regulations, such as the Affordable Care Act, that directly affect our customers, can have an indirect impact on our business.

The rapidly evolving and uncertain regulatory and technology environment could require us to change how we do business or incur additional costs. It may be difficult to predict how changes to these laws and regulations might affect our business. Our current and past privacy and security practices, including any breaches of protected health information or other data, could be subject to review or other investigation by various state and federal regulatory authorities or could become the subject of future litigation.

Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, including those governing privacy and security, could subject us to civil and criminal penalties, subject us to contractual penalties (including termination of our customer agreements), adversely affect our ability to retain clients and attract new clients, damage our reputation, or otherwise have a detrimental impact on our business.

Any reduction or change in the regulation of continuing education and training in the healthcare industry may adversely affect our business.

A portion of our business model is dependent in part on required training and continuing education for healthcare professionals and other healthcare workers resulting from regulations of state and federal agencies, state licensing boards and professional organizations. Any change in these regulations that reduce the requirements for continuing education and training for the healthcare industry could harm our business. In addition, a portion of our business with pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers and hospitals is predicated on our ability to maintain accreditation status with organizations such as the ACCME and ANCC. The failure to maintain status as an accredited provider could have a detrimental effect on our business.

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We may be liable to third parties for content that is sold or made available by us.

We may be liable to third parties for the content sold or made available by us if the text, graphics, software, or other content therein violates copyright, trademark, or other intellectual property rights, if our content partners violate their contractual obligations to others by providing content that we sell or make available, or if the content is inaccurate, incomplete, or does not conform to accepted standards of care in the healthcare profession. Further, we may be liable to these content partners if we allow access or release and lose control of their content stored on our platform either due to security issues or through improper release to customers who have not paid for access to this content. We attempt to minimize these types of liabilities by requiring representations and warranties relating to our content partners’ ownership of the rights to distribute as well as the accuracy of their content. We also take necessary measures to review this content ourselves. Although our agreements with our content partners in most instances contain provisions providing for indemnification by the content providers in the event of inaccurate content, our content partners may not have the financial resources to meet these indemnification obligations. Alleged liability could harm our business by damaging our reputation, requiring us to incur legal costs in defense, exposing us to awards of damages and costs, and diverting management’s attention away from our business.

Protection of certain intellectual property may be difficult and costly, and our inability to protect our intellectual property could reduce the value of our products and services.

Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights, as well as the intellectual property rights of our strategic partners, a third party could, without authorization, copy or otherwise misappropriate our content, information from our databases, or other intellectual property, including that of our third party strategic partners. Our agreements with employees, consultants and others who participate in development activities could be breached and result in our trade secrets becoming known. Alternatively, competitors and other third parties may independently develop or create content or systems that do not infringe our intellectual property rights. We may not have adequate remedies for such breaches or protections against such competitor developments. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and effective intellectual property protection may not be available in those jurisdictions.

Our business could be harmed if unauthorized parties infringe upon or misappropriate our intellectual property, proprietary systems, content, platform, services or other information, or the intellectual property of our strategic partners. Our efforts to protect our intellectual property through copyright, trademarks, and other controls, as well as our efforts to protect the intellectual property of our strategic partners, may not be adequate. For instance, we may not be able to secure trademark or service mark registrations for marks in the United States or in foreign countries, or to secure patents for our proprietary products and services, and even if we are successful in obtaining patent and/or trademark registrations, these registrations may be opposed or invalidated by a third party. We also have certain contractual obligations to protect the intellectual property of our strategic partners, and could be required to indemnify such strategic partners if we do not adequately provide such protections.

There has been substantial litigation in the software services and healthcare technology industries regarding intellectual property assets, particularly patents. Third parties may claim infringement by us with respect to current and future products, trademarks or other proprietary rights, and we may counterclaim against such third parties in such actions. Any such claims or counterclaims could be time-consuming, result in costly litigation, divert management’s attention, cause product release delays, require us to redesign our products, restrict our use of the intellectual property subject to such claim, or require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements, any of which could have an adverse effect upon our business, financial condition, and operating results. Such royalty and licensing agreements may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

We may be liable for infringing the intellectual property rights of others.

Our competitors may develop similar intellectual property, duplicate our products and/or services, or design around any patents or other intellectual property rights we hold. Litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity and scope of the patents, intellectual property or other proprietary rights of third parties, which could be time consuming and costly and have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition. Intellectual property infringement claims could be made against us, especially as the number of our competitors grows. These claims, even if not meritorious, could be expensive and divert our attention from operating our company and result in a temporary inability to use the intellectual property subject to such claim. In addition, if we and/or our affiliates and customers become liable to third parties for infringing their intellectual property rights, we could be required to pay a substantial damage award and develop comparable non-infringing intellectual property, to obtain a license, or to cease providing the content or services that contain the infringing intellectual property. We may be unable to develop non-infringing intellectual property or obtain a license on commercially reasonable terms, if at all.

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A variety of other state, national, foreign, and international laws and regulations apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, security, disclosure, transfer, and other processing of personal data. California has passed the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA), which takes effect January 1, 2020. The CCPA applies broadly to information that identifies or is associated with any California household or individual, and compliance with the CCPA requires that we implement several operational changes, including processes to respond to individuals’ data access and deletion requests. In addition, many foreign data privacy regulations (including the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which became effective in the European Union on May 25, 2018, and China’s Cybersecurity Law which became effective in 2017) can be more stringent than those in the United States. These laws and regulations are rapidly evolving and changing, and could have an adverse effect on our operations. Companies’ obligations and requirements under these laws and regulations are subject to uncertainty in how they may be interpreted by government authorities and regulators. The costs of compliance with, and the other burdens imposed by, these and other laws or regulatory actions may increase our operational costs, prevent us from selling our products or services, and/or affect our ability to invest in or jointly develop products. We may also face audits or investigations by one or more domestic or foreign government agencies relating to our compliance with these regulations.

We may be adversely affected by changes in U.S. tax laws and regulations.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (Tax Act), which was signed into law on December 22, 2017, made significant changes to the taxation of U.S. business entities. These changes included a permanent reduction to the federal corporate income tax rate to 21 percent from 35 percent, among other changes. The Company has accounted for the effects of the Tax Act using reasonable estimates based on currently available information and interpretations thereof. This accounting may change due to, among other things, changes in interpretations we have made and the issuance of new tax or accounting guidance.

It is possible that governmental authorities in the United States could further amend tax laws in a manner that would adversely impact us.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

Our principal office is located in Nashville, Tennessee, which is primarily used to support our workforce solutions operations and corporate functions. Our lease for approximately 73,000 square feet at this location expires in April 2019, at or near which time we expect to relocate and consolidate our corporate headquarters to nearby space with approximately 92,000 square feet in Nashville, the lease for which we entered into in April 2017 and will also replace our Brentwood, Tennessee office. As of December 31, 2018, we leased other facilities in Nashville, Tennessee; Jericho, New York; Brentwood, Tennessee; San Diego, California; Chicago, Illinois; and Boulder, Colorado.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

None.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “HSTM”. Our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq National Market on April 14, 2000.

 

As of February 7, 2019, the Company had a total of 9,875 shareholders, including 517 registered holders and 9,358 beneficial holders.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We declared a $1.00 per common share special cash dividend with the proceeds from the divestiture of the Patient Experience business segment, paid on April 3, 2018 to shareholders of record on March 6, 2018. We do not anticipate paying normal cash dividends in the future as we intend to retain earnings for use in the operation of our business.

See the table labeled “Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans” to be contained in our 2019 Proxy Statement, incorporated by reference in Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH

The graph below compares HealthStream, Inc.’s cumulative total shareholder return on common stock with the cumulative total returns of companies on the Nasdaq Composite Index and the Nasdaq Computer & Data Processing Index for each of the last five fiscal years ended December 31, 2018, assuming an initial investment of $100. Data for the Nasdaq Composite Index and the Nasdaq Computer & Data Processing Index assume the reinvestment of dividends.

The comparisons in the graph below are based on historical data and are not necessarily indicative of future performance of our common stock.

COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN (1)

Among HealthStream, Inc., the Nasdaq Composite Index

And the Nasdaq Computer & Data Processing Index

 

(1) $100 invested on 12/31/13 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends; fiscal year ending December 31.

RECENT SALES OF UNREGISTERED SECURITIES

None.

ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

None.

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The selected statement of income and balance sheet data for the five years prior to December 31, 2018 is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. You should read the following selected financial data in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this report.

In February 2018, HealthStream divested its PX business to Press Ganey. The results of operations for the PX are presented as discontinued operations within the consolidated statement of income data set forth below. Additionally, on January 1, 2018, HealthStream adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) and all the related amendments and guidance (collectively, ASC 606), using the modified retrospective method with the cumulative effect of initially applying the guidance recognized upon adoption. The financial information below for the periods 2014 – 2017 has not been restated and continues to be reported under the revenue recognition standard which was in effect for those periods (ASC 605). See Note 1 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this report, for further information.

In addition, HealthStream has completed several acquisitions during the five years prior to December 31, 2018, including the acquisitions of Health Care Compliance Strategies, Inc. on March 3, 2014, HealthLine Systems, Inc. on March 16, 2015, Performance Management Services, Inc. on June 30, 2016, Nursing Registry Consultants Corporation on July 25, 2016, and Morrisey Associates, Inc. on August 8, 2016. The results of operations for these acquired companies are included within our consolidated statement of income data effective from the respective dates of acquisition. As a result of these factors, the annual results presented below are not comparable. The operating results for any single year are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future.

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

STATEMENT OF INCOME DATA:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues, net

 

$

231,616

 

 

$

214,899

 

 

$

192,124

 

 

$

174,809

 

 

$

138,789

 

Total operating costs and expenses

 

 

216,125

 

 

 

205,492

 

 

 

184,953

 

 

 

161,641

 

 

 

122,384

 

Operating income

 

 

15,491

 

 

 

9,407

 

 

 

7,171

 

 

 

13,168

 

 

 

16,405

 

Income from continuing operations

 

 

13,251

 

 

 

8,838

 

 

 

4,791

 

 

 

8,273

 

 

 

10,367

 

Income from discontinued operations

 

 

18,966

 

 

 

1,166

 

 

 

(1,036

)

 

 

348

 

 

 

27

 

Net income

 

 

32,217

 

 

 

10,004

 

 

 

3,755

 

 

 

8,621

 

 

 

10,394

 

PER SHARE DATA (DILUTED):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income from continuing operations

 

$

0.41

 

 

$

0.27

 

 

$

0.15

 

 

$

0.27

 

 

$

0.37

 

Net income (loss) from discontinued operations

 

 

0.59

 

 

 

0.04

 

 

 

(0.03

)

 

 

0.01

 

 

 

 

Net income

 

 

1.00

 

 

 

0.31

 

 

 

0.12

 

 

 

0.28

 

 

 

0.37

 

Weighted average shares of common stock outstanding

 

 

32,335

 

 

 

32,196

 

 

 

32,068

 

 

 

30,436

 

 

 

28,023

 

Dividends declared

 

 

1.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BALANCE SHEET DATA:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

134,321

 

 

$

84,768

 

 

$

49,634

 

 

$

82,010

 

 

$

81,995

 

Marketable securities

 

 

34,497

 

 

 

46,350

 

 

 

53,540

 

 

 

66,976

 

 

 

38,973

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

38,124

 

 

 

36,691

 

 

 

40,340

 

 

 

29,654

 

 

 

27,978

 

Goodwill and intangible assets

 

 

145,522

 

 

 

154,641

 

 

 

163,321

 

 

 

113,895

 

 

 

31,212

 

Working capital

 

 

134,581

 

 

 

98,662

 

 

 

82,467

 

 

 

120,459

 

 

 

96,999

 

Total assets

 

 

441,948

 

 

 

411,119

 

 

 

396,000

 

 

 

379,569

 

 

 

256,908

 

Deferred revenue – current and noncurrent

 

 

68,929

 

 

 

71,225

 

 

 

72,115

 

 

 

63,034

 

 

 

53,924

 

Shareholders’ equity

 

 

318,947

 

 

 

300,170

 

 

 

286,108

 

 

 

280,320

 

 

 

167,859

 

 

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion of the financial condition and results of operations of HealthStream should be read in conjunction with “Selected Financial Data” and HealthStream’s Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. HealthStream’s actual results may differ significantly from the results discussed and those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including but not limited to the risks described under “Risk Factors” and

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elsewhere in this report, as well as additional risks or uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial.

OVERVIEW

HealthStream provides workforce development and provider solutions for healthcare organizations—all designed to assess and develop the people that deliver patient care, which, in turn, supports the improvement of business and clinical outcomes. Workforce Solutions products are used by healthcare organizations to meet a broad range of their clinical development, talent management, training, certification, competency assessment, and performance appraisal needs. Provider Solutions products are used by healthcare organizations for provider credentialing, privileging, and enrollment needs. HealthStream’s customers include healthcare organizations, pharmaceutical and medical device companies, and other participants in the healthcare industry.

On February 12, 2018, the Company divested its PX business to Press Ganey for $65.2 million in cash (after giving effect to the post-closing working capital adjustment), of which $6.5 million is being held in escrow for a period of time following the disposition as a source of recovery for indemnification claims by Press Ganey. The sale of the PX business was effected by (i) the contribution by the Company of specified assets and certain liabilities used in the PX business to a newly-formed wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, and (ii) immediately thereafter, the sale by the Company to Press Ganey of all of the outstanding equity interests of such wholly-owned subsidiary. In connection with such contribution, the Company retained certain liabilities related to the PX business.

Prior to the disposition of the PX business, our Patient Experience Solutions products provided our customers information about patients’ experiences and how to improve them, workforce engagement, physician relations, and community perceptions of their services. The historical financial results of the PX business for periods prior to the closing of the disposition of the PX business on February 12, 2018 are reflected in the Company’s consolidated financial statements as discontinued operations. This sale of the PX business resulted in the Company’s divestiture of the patient experience solutions business segment.

Revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018 were $231.6 million, compared to $214.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, an increase of 8%. Operating income increased by 65% to $15.5 million for 2018, compared to $9.4 million for 2017. Income from continuing operations increased by 50% to $13.3 million for 2018, compared to $8.8 million for 2017. Earnings per share (EPS) from continuing operations were $0.41 per share (diluted) for 2018, compared to $0.27 per share (diluted) for 2017. Net income increased to $32.2 million for 2018, compared to $10.0 million for 2017, which increase was primarily driven by the $19.0 million gain, net of tax, on the sale of the PX business. Earnings per share were $1.00 per share (diluted) for 2018 compared to $0.31 per share (diluted) for 2017. Revenues from HealthStream Workforce Solutions grew by 7%, or $12.1 million, and revenues from HealthStream Provider Solutions grew by 13%, or $4.6 million. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had approximately 4.93 million total subscribers, of which approximately 4.82 million were fully implemented subscribers on its SaaS-based platform. As of December 31, 2018, cash and investment balances approximated $168.8 million, and the Company maintained full availability under its $50.0 million revolving credit facility.

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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

Revenue Recognition

Revenues are recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to the customer in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring those goods or services.

 

Revenue is recognized based on the following five step model:

 

Identification of the contract with a customer

 

Identification of the performance obligations in the contract

 

Determination of the transaction price

 

Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract

 

Recognition of revenue when, or as, the Company satisfies a performance obligation

 

Subscription/SaaS services revenues primarily consist of fees in consideration of providing customers access to one or more of our SaaS-based solutions and/or courseware subscriptions, as well as fees related to licensing agreements, all of which include routine customer support and technology enhancements. Revenue is generally recognized over time during the contract term beginning when the service is made available to the customer. Subscription/SaaS contracts are generally non-cancelable, one to five years in length, and billed annually, semi-annually, quarterly, or monthly in advance.

 

Professional services revenues primarily consist of fees for implementation services, consulting, custom courseware development, and training. The majority of our professional services contracts are billed in advance based on a fixed price basis, and revenue is recognized over time as the services are performed. For both subscription/SaaS services and professional services, the time between billing the customer and when performance obligations are satisfied is generally not significant.

 

Our contracts with customers often contain multiple performance obligations. For these contracts, the Company accounts for individual performance obligations separately if they are distinct. The contract price, which represents transaction price, is allocated to the separate performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. We generally determine standalone selling prices based on the standard list price for each product, taking into consideration certain factors, including contract length and the number of subscribers within the contract.

 

We receive payments from customers based on billing schedules established in our contracts. Accounts receivable - unbilled represent contract assets related to our conditional right to consideration where performance has occurred under the contract. Accounts receivable are primarily comprised of trade receivables that are recorded at the invoice amount, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts, when the right to consideration becomes unconditional. Other receivables, which are included within Accounts Receivable, include receivables from certain content partners and are not material.

 

Deferred revenue represents contract liabilities that are recorded when cash payments are received or are due in advance of our satisfaction of performance obligations.

Accounting for Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method, whereby deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the temporary differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities measured at tax rates that will be in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Management periodically assesses the realizability of its deferred tax assets, and to the extent that we believe a recovery is not likely, we establish a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax asset to the amount we estimate will be recoverable. The Company maintains a valuation allowance of approximately $311,000 for the portion of its deferred tax assets that are not more likely than not expected to be realized.

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Software Development Costs

Capitalized software development includes costs to develop and maintain our products and applications, including our SaaS-based workforce development and provider solutions platform products, which are accounted for as internal use software. For internal use software development, once planning is completed and the software development process begins, internal costs and payments to third parties associated with the software development efforts are capitalized when the life expectancy is greater than one year and the anticipated cash flows are expected to exceed the cost of the related asset. During 2018 and 2017, we capitalized approximately $11.9 million and $10.2 million, respectively, for software development. Such amounts are included in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets under the caption “capitalized software development.” The Company amortizes capitalized software development costs over their expected life of generally three years using the straight-line method. Capitalized software development costs are subject to a periodic impairment review in accordance with our impairment review policy. In connection with capitalized software development, significant estimates involve the assessment of the development period for new products and feature enhancements, as well as the expected useful life of underlying software, feature enhancements, or product created. Once capitalized, software development costs are subject to the policies and estimates described below regarding goodwill, intangibles, and other long-lived assets.

Goodwill, Intangibles, and Other Long-lived Assets

The Company evaluates goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level by assessing whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying value. If this assessment concludes that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, then goodwill is not considered impaired and no further impairment testing is required. Conversely, if the assessment concludes that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, a goodwill impairment test is performed to compare the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value. The Company determines fair value of the reporting units using both income and market based models. Our models contain significant assumptions and accounting estimates about discount rates, future cash flows, and terminal values that could materially affect our operating results or financial position if they were to change significantly in the future and could result in an impairment. We perform our goodwill impairment assessment whenever events or changes in facts or circumstances indicate that impairment may exist and also during the fourth quarter each year. Intangible assets and other long-lived assets are also reviewed for events or changes in facts and circumstances, both internally and externally, which may indicate an impairment is present. We measure any impairment using observable market values or discounted future cash flows from the related long-lived assets. The cash flow estimates and discount rates incorporate management’s best estimates, using appropriate and customary assumptions and projections at the date of evaluation.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

The Company estimates its allowance for doubtful accounts to include accounts that may become uncollectible in the future, along with using a specific identification method in which management considers the facts and circumstances surrounding each potentially uncollectible receivable. Uncollectible receivables are written-off in the period management believes it has exhausted its ability to collect payment from the customer. Bad debt expense is recorded when events or circumstances indicate an additional allowance is required. Our allowance for doubtful accounts totaled approximately $1.2 million as of December 31, 2018.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Revenues and Expense Components

The following descriptions of the components of revenues and expenses apply to the comparison of results of operations.

Revenues, net. Revenues for our HealthStream Workforce Solutions business segment primarily consist of the following products and services: provision of services through our SaaS-based platform, authoring tools, a variety of content subscriptions, competency and performance appraisal tools, implementation and consulting services, content development, training, and a variety of other educational activities to serve professionals that work within healthcare organizations. Revenues for our HealthStream Provider Solutions business segment consist of proprietary software applications to help facilitate provider credentialing, privileging, call center, and enrollment administration for healthcare organizations.

Cost of Revenues (excluding depreciation and amortization). Cost of revenues (excluding depreciation and amortization) consists primarily of salaries and employee benefits, stock based compensation, employee travel and lodging, materials, contract labor, hosting costs, and other direct expenses associated with revenues, as well as royalties paid by us to content providers based on a percentage of revenues. Personnel costs within cost of revenues are associated with individuals that facilitate product delivery; provide services; handle customer support calls or inquiries; manage the technology infrastructure for our applications; manage content; and provide training or implementation services.

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Product Development. Product development consists primarily of salaries and employee benefits, contract labor, stock based compensation, costs associated with the development of new software feature enhancements, new products, and costs associated with maintaining and developing our products. Personnel costs within product development include our systems, application development, quality assurance teams, product managers, and other personnel associated with software and product development.

Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing consists primarily of salaries and employee benefits, commissions, stock based compensation, employee travel and lodging, advertising, trade shows, customer conferences, promotions, and related marketing costs. Personnel costs within sales and marketing include our sales teams and marketing personnel.

Other General and Administrative Expenses. Other general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and employee benefits, stock based compensation, employee travel and lodging, facility costs, office expenses, fees for professional services, business development and acquisition related costs, 3rd party software licensing for internal use, and other operational expenses. Personnel costs within general and administrative expenses include individuals associated with normal corporate functions (accounting, legal, business development, human resources, administrative, internal information systems, and executive management).

Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization consist of fixed asset depreciation, amortization of intangibles considered to have definite lives, and amortization of capitalized software development.

Other Income (Expense), Net. The primary component of other income is interest income related to interest earned on cash, cash equivalents, and investments in marketable securities. The primary component of other expense is interest expense related to our revolving credit facility. In addition, the income or loss attributed to equity method investments and fair value adjustments related to cost method investments is included in this category.

2018 Compared to 2017

Revenues, net. Revenues increased approximately $16.7 million, or 8%, to $231.6 million for 2018 from $214.9 million for 2017. A comparison of revenues by business segment is as follows (in thousands):

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

Revenues by Business Segment:

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

Percentage

Change

 

Workforce Solutions

 

$

190,139

 

 

$

178,061

 

 

 

7

%

Provider Solutions

 

 

41,477

 

 

 

36,838

 

 

 

13

%

Total revenues, net

 

$

231,616

 

 

$

214,899

 

 

 

8

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

% of Revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Workforce Solutions

 

 

82

%

 

 

83

%

 

 

 

 

Provider Solutions

 

 

18

%

 

 

17

%

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues for HealthStream Workforce Solutions, which are primarily subscription-based, increased approximately $12.1 million, or 7%, to $190.1 million for 2018 from $178.1 million for 2017. Revenues in 2018 were positively influenced by growth in subscriptions for courseware and our enterprise applications. Implemented subscribers increased by 4% during 2018 to 4.82 million subscribers at the end of 2018 compared to 4.65 million subscribers at the end of 2017. Additionally, total subscribers increased by 3%, with 4.93 million total subscribers at December 31, 2018 compared to 4.77 million total subscribers at December 31, 2017.

Revenues for HealthStream Provider Solutions increased approximately $4.6 million, or 13%, to $41.5 million for 2018 from $36.8 million for 2017. Revenue growth resulted from higher sales of our provider solutions products and lower deferred revenue write-downs compared to the prior year.

Cost of Revenues (excluding depreciation and amortization). Cost of revenues increased approximately $8.8 million, or 10%, to $96.0 million for 2018 from $87.2 million for 2017. Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues was approximately 41% of revenues for both 2018 and 2017.

Cost of revenues for HealthStream Workforce Solutions increased approximately $7.1 million to $82.4 million and approximated 43% and 42% of revenues for HealthStream Workforce Solutions for 2018 and 2017, respectively. The

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increase primarily resulted from increased royalties paid by us resulting from growth in courseware subscription revenues. Cost of revenues for HealthStream Provider Solutions increased approximately $1.7 million to $13.6 million and approximated 33% and 32% of HealthStream Provider Solutions revenues for 2018 and 2017, respectively. The increase is primarily associated with additions to personnel and increased hosting costs.

Product Development. Product development expenses increased approximately $1.6 million, or 7%, to $25.7 million for 2018 from $24.1 million for 2017. Product development expenses as a percentage of revenues were approximately 11% of revenues for both 2018 and 2017.

Product development expenses for HealthStream Workforce Solutions increased approximately $1.3 million to $20.9 million and approximated 11% of revenues for HealthStream Workforce Solutions for both 2018 and 2017. The increase is primarily due to additions to personnel during 2018. Product development expenses for HealthStream Provider Solutions increased approximately $286,000 to $4.8 million and approximated 12% of revenues for HealthStream Provider Solutions for both 2018 and 2017. The increase is primarily due to additions to personnel during 2018.

Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expenses, including personnel costs, decreased approximately $2.9 million, or 8%, to $35.7 million for 2018 from $38.6 million for 2017. Sales and marketing expenses were approximately 15% and 18% of revenues for 2018 and 2017, respectively.

Sales and marketing expenses for HealthStream Workforce Solutions decreased approximately $2.9 million to $28.5 million and approximated 15% and 18% of revenues for HealthStream Workforce Solutions for 2018 and 2017, respectively. The decrease is primarily due to lower sales commissions expense in 2018 compared to 2017 due to the adoption of ASC 606, under which costs to acquire contracts with customers, such as sales commissions, are capitalized. Sales and marketing expenses for HealthStream Provider Solutions increased approximately $162,000 to $6.1 million and approximated 15% and 16% of revenues for HealthStream Provider Solutions for 2018 and 2017, respectively. The increase is primarily due to additions to personnel during 2018, offset by a reduction of sales commissions expense due to ASC 606. The unallocated corporate portion of sales and marketing expenses decreased by $139,000 to $1.1 million over 2017 primarily due to reductions to personnel costs.

Other General and Administrative Expenses. Other general and administrative expenses increased approximately $3.0 million, or 9%, to $34.4 million for 2018 from $31.5 million for 2017. Other general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenues were approximately 15% of revenues for both 2018 and 2017.

Other general and administrative expenses for HealthStream Workforce Solutions increased approximately $1.6 million to $9.7 million and approximated 5% of revenues for HealthStream Workforce Solutions for both 2018 and 2017. The increase is primarily due to higher administrative costs and higher bad debt expense. Other general and administrative expenses for HealthStream Provider Solutions decreased approximately $888,000 to $4.6 million and approximated 11% and 15% of revenues for HealthStream Provider Solutions for 2018 and 2017, respectively. The decrease is primarily due to a reduction in bad debt expense, which resulted from improved collections and fewer bad debts from customers compared to the prior year. The unallocated corporate portion of other general and administrative expenses increased approximately $2.3 million to $20.1 million over 2017, primarily due to increases to personnel, contract labor, software expense, professional services, acquisition due diligence, and other administrative costs.

Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization increased approximately $184,000, or 0.8%, to $24.2 million for 2018 from $24.0 million for 2017. The increase resulted from amortization of capitalized software development, partially offset by lower depreciation of property and equipment.

Other Income (Expense), Net. Other income (expense), net was income of approximately $1.1 million for 2018 compared to $733,000 for 2017. The increase is due higher interest income from cash and investments in marketable securities, partially offset by a $1.3 million decline in the fair value of a minority equity investment accounted for under the cost method of accounting.

Income Tax Provision. The Company recorded a provision for income taxes of approximately $3.3 million for 2018 compared to $1.3 million for 2017. The Company’s effective tax rate was approximately 20% for 2018 compared to 13% for 2017. The increase in income tax expense during 2018 is primarily attributable to the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act on December 22, 2017, which reduced the corporate federal income tax rate from 35% to 21%. This change in tax law resulted in an income tax benefit of approximately $1.7 million during the fourth quarter of 2017 through the revaluation of our net deferred tax liabilities.

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Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations. On February 12, 2018, the Company divested its PX business to Press Ganey for $65.2 million in cash (after giving effect to the post-closing working capital adjustment), resulting in a gain, net of tax, of $19.0 million in 2018.

Net Income. Net income increased approximately $22.2 million, or 222%, to $32.2 million for 2018 compared to $10.0 million for 2017. The increase resulted from the factors mentioned above. Earnings per diluted share were $1.00 per share for 2018 compared to $0.31 per share for 2017.

Adjusted EBITDA (a non-GAAP financial measure which we define as net income before interest, income taxes, stock based compensation, depreciation and amortization, and changes in fair value of cost method investments) increased approximately 87% to approximately $71.1 million for 2018 compared to $37.9 million for 2017. The increase resulted from the factors mentioned above. See Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures below for our reconciliation of this calculation to measures under US GAAP.

2017 Compared to 2016

Revenues, net. Revenues increased approximately $22.8 million, or 12%, to $214.9 million for 2017 from $192.1 million for 2016. A comparison of revenues by business segment is as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

Revenues by Business Segment:

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

Percentage

Change

 

Workforce Solutions

 

$

178,061

 

 

$

168,040

 

 

 

6

%

Provider Solutions

 

 

36,838

 

 

 

24,084

 

 

 

53

%

Total revenues, net

 

$

214,899

 

 

$

192,124

 

 

 

12

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

% of Revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Workforce Solutions

 

 

83

%

 

 

87

%

 

 

 

 

Provider Solutions

 

 

17

%

 

 

13

%

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues for HealthStream Workforce Solutions, which are primarily subscription-based, increased approximately $10.0 million, or 6%, to $178.1 million for 2017 from $168.0 million for 2016. Revenues in 2017 were positively influenced by growth in subscriptions for courseware and our enterprise applications, but were partially offset by an expected decline in ICD-10 readiness revenues. Revenues from ICD-10 readiness products declined by $7.6 million to $909,000 in 2017 compared to $8.5 million in 2016. The requirement mandated by CMS for healthcare organizations to transition to the ICD-10 coding system was effective in October 2015, and generated significant demand for our ICD-10 readiness training courseware from 2012 through 2015. Implemented subscribers increased by 4% during 2017 to 4.65 million subscribers at the end of 2017 compared to 4.47 million subscribers at the end of 2016. Additionally, total subscribers increased by 5%, with 4.77 million total subscribers at December 31, 2017 compared to 4.55 million total subscribers at December 31, 2016.

Revenues for HealthStream Provider Solutions increased approximately $12.8 million, or 53%, to $36.8 million for 2017 from $24.1 million for 2016. Revenues from the MAI acquisition, which was consummated on August 8, 2016, were approximately $10.7 million during 2017, and represented the majority of the increase.

Cost of Revenues (excluding depreciation and amortization). Cost of revenues increased approximately $12.2 million, or 16%, to $87.2 million for 2017 from $75.0 million for 2016. Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues was approximately 41% and 39% of revenues for 2017 and 2016, respectively.

Cost of revenues for HealthStream Workforce Solutions increased approximately $7.9 million to $75.3 million and approximated 42% and 40% of revenues for HealthStream Workforce Solutions for 2017 and 2016, respectively. The increase is primarily associated with increased royalties paid by us resulting from growth in courseware subscription revenues and increased personnel costs. Cost of revenues for HealthStream Provider Solutions increased approximately $4.3 million to $11.9 million and approximated 32% of HealthStream Provider Solutions revenues for both 2017 and 2016. The increase is primarily the result of the MAI acquisition and additions to personnel and increased hosting costs.

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Product Development. Product development expenses decreased approximately $86,000, or 0.4%, to $24.1 million for 2017 from $24.2 million for 2016. Product development expenses as a percentage of revenues were approximately 11% and 13% of revenues for 2017 and 2016, respectively.

Product development expenses for HealthStream Workforce Solutions decreased approximately $799,000 to $19.6 million and approximated 11% and 12% of revenues for HealthStream Workforce Solutions for 2017 and 2016, respectively. The decrease is primarily due to lower outsourced labor expenses, partially offset by an increase in personnel costs. Product development expenses for HealthStream Provider Solutions increased approximately $714,000 to $4.5 million and approximated 12% and 16% of revenues for HealthStream Provider Solutions for 2017 and 2016, respectively. The increase in amount is primarily associated with the MAI acquisition and additions to personnel, partially offset by higher labor capitalization for internal software development.

Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expenses, including personnel costs, increased approximately $3.7 million, or 11%, to $38.6 million for 2017 from $34.9 million for 2016. Sales and marketing expenses were approximately 18% of revenues for both 2017 and 2016.

Sales and marketing expenses for HealthStream Workforce Solutions increased approximately $2.8 million to $31.4 million and approximated 18% and 17% of revenues for HealthStream Workforce Solutions for 2017 and 2016, respectively. The increase is mainly due to additional personnel and higher sales commissions. Sales and marketing expenses for HealthStream Provider Solutions increased approximately $674,000 to $5.9 million and approximated 16% and 22% of revenues for HealthStream Provider Solutions for 2017 and 2016, respectively. The increase is primarily the result of higher sales commissions resulting from growth in sales. The unallocated corporate portion of sales and marketing expenses increased by $165,000 to $1.3 million primarily due to higher personnel costs and increased marketing spending.

Other General and Administrative Expenses. Other general and administrative expenses increased approximately $1.0 million, or 3%, to $31.5 million for 2017 from $30.5 million for 2016. Other general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenues were approximately 15% and 16% of revenues for 2017 and 2016, respectively.

Other general and administrative expenses for HealthStream Workforce Solutions increased approximately $2.1 million to $8.1 million over 2016 primarily associated with higher facility costs and increased technology infrastructure investments. Other general and administrative expenses for HealthStream Provider Solutions increased approximately $1.7 million to $5.5 million over 2016 primarily associated with increased facility costs, contract labor, and higher bad debt expense. The unallocated corporate portion of other general and administrative expenses decreased approximately $2.7 million to $17.9 million over 2016, primarily due to lower professional service expenses as a result of the implementation of a new financial systems platform and the MAI transaction during the prior year period, reductions to contract labor, and reductions of other general administrative expenses, partially offset by implementation costs for compliance with ASC 606.

Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization increased approximately $3.7 million, or 18%, to $24.0 million for 2017 from $20.4 million for 2016. The increase primarily resulted from amortization of capitalized software development, amortization of intangible assets from recent acquisitions (including amortization of software acquired for resale), and depreciation expense associated with capital expenditures.

Other Income (Expense), Net. Other income (expense), net was income of approximately $733,000 for 2017 compared to $581,000 for 2016. The increase is primarily due to an increase in interest income from cash and investments in marketable securities.  

Income Tax Provision. The Company recorded a provision for income taxes of approximately $1.3 million for 2017 compared to $3.0 million for 2016. The Company’s effective tax rate was approximately 13% for 2017 compared to approximately 38% for 2016. The decrease in income tax expense during 2017 is primarily attributable to the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act on December 22, 2017, which reduced the corporate federal income tax rate from 35% to 21%. This change in tax law resulted in an income tax benefit of approximately $1.7 million during the fourth quarter of 2017 through the revaluation of our net deferred tax liabilities.

Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations. Income from discontinued operations increased in 2017 over 2016 primarily due to an increase in operating income related to the PX business included in discontinued operations coupled with an income tax benefit of $1.0 million during the fourth quarter of 2017 through the revaluation of net deferred tax liabilities due to changes in the corporate federal income tax rate.

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Net Income. Net income increased approximately $6.2 million, or 166%, to $10.0 million for 2017 compared to $3.8 million for 2016. The increase resulted from the factors mentioned above. Earnings per diluted share were $0.31 per share for 2017 compared to $0.12 per diluted share for 2016.

Adjusted EBITDA increased approximately 27% to approximately $37.9 million for 2017 compared to $29.9 million for 2016. The increase resulted from the factors mentioned above. See Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures below for our reconciliation of this calculation to measures under US GAAP.

Other Developments

Our legacy agreements with Laerdal (Legacy Agreements) for the HeartCode and Resuscitation Quality Improvement (RQI) products expired pursuant to their terms on December 31, 2018 and will not be renewed. Revenues associated with sales of HeartCode and RQI products pursuant to the Legacy Agreements have been significant in recent years, although margins on such products have been lower than HealthStream’s average margin. In 2018, revenue generated by HeartCode and RQI pursuant to the Legacy Agreements was approximately $55 million. In 2019, we expect the revenue from these products generated pursuant to the Legacy Agreements to modestly exceed the $55 million achieved in 2018. We expect 2019 revenue from HeartCode and RQI generated pursuant to the Legacy Agreements to peak near mid-year in 2019 and decline thereafter.  We expect revenue from HeartCode and RQI sold pursuant to the Legacy Agreements to be $0 in the first quarter of 2021.

On December 6, 2018, we announced a new agreement with RQI Partners, a joint venture between Laerdal and the American Heart Association. This agreement with RQI Partners is not an extension or renewal of the expired Legacy Agreements with Laerdal and should not be construed as such. Under our agreement with RQI Partners, HealthStream will neither market nor sell HeartCode or RQI. Our RQI Partner agreement provides for continuity of service for customers that desire to purchase HeartCode or RQI from RQI Partners after December 31, 2018 and receive it via the HealthStream Learning Center. RQI Partners will remit a fee to us when new sales of HeartCode and RQI are delivered via the HealthStream Learning Center.  This fee will not be sufficient to supplant the revenue runout associated with the Legacy Agreements.

We remain actively engaged in efforts to broaden the scope and utilization of our simulation-related offerings to include a range of clinical competencies that extend beyond resuscitation, and we intend to bring to market a broadened scope of simulation-based offerings, including resuscitation programs. On January 17, 2019, as part of a seven-year collaboration agreement with the American Red Cross, which spans into 2026, we announced the launch of the American Red Cross Resuscitation Suite. We have now begun efforts to market, sell, and deliver the American Cross Resuscitation Suite. We believe these efforts, along with efforts to bring additional simulation-related offerings to market, have the potential to give rise to additional and higher margin opportunities than those that existed under the Legacy Agreements. However, there is no assurance that we will be successful in these efforts, and to the extent that new simulation-based or other solutions do not generate revenue and/or earnings in a manner that supplants the impact of the Legacy Agreements, our revenue and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures

This report contains certain non-GAAP financial measures, including non-GAAP net income, non-GAAP operating income, adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations, and adjusted EBITDA, which are used by management in analyzing our financial results and ongoing operational performance.

In order to better assess the Company’s financial results, management believes that net income before interest, income taxes, share-based compensation, depreciation and amortization, and changes in fair value of cost method investments (adjusted EBITDA) is a useful measure for evaluating the operating performance of the Company because adjusted EBITDA reflects net income adjusted for certain non-cash and non-operating items. Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2016-01, which (among other things) requires equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. During the three months ended September 30, 2018, the Company recorded a reduction to net income and net income from continuing operations from a change in the fair value of a minority equity investment accounted for under the cost method of accounting. The Company has included this adjustment in the calculation of adjusted EBITDA, and intends to continue to include any positive or negative changes in fair value of cost method investments in the calculation of adjusted EBITDA on a prospective basis, because management believes that such changes do not represent the ongoing operational performance of the Company. Management also believes that adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations is a useful measure for evaluating the operating performance of the Company because such measure excludes the results of operations of the PX business that we sold in February 2018 and thus reflects the Company’s ongoing business operations

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and assists in comparing the Company’s results of operations between periods. We also believe that adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations are useful to many investors to assess the Company’s ongoing results from current operations. Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations are non-GAAP financial measures and should not be considered as measures of financial performance under GAAP. Because adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations are not measurements determined in accordance with GAAP, such non-GAAP financial measures are susceptible to varying calculations. Accordingly, adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations, as presented, may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies, have limitations as analytical tools, and should not be considered in isolation or as substitutes for an analysis of the Company’s results as reported under US GAAP.

In recent years, including in connection with the August 2016 acquisition of MAI, the Company has acquired businesses whose net tangible assets include deferred revenue. In accordance with GAAP reporting requirements, following the completion of any such acquisition, the Company must record the acquired deferred revenue at fair value as defined in US GAAP, which may result in a write-down of deferred revenue. If the Company is required to record a write-down of deferred revenue, it may result in lower recognized revenue, operating income, and net income in subsequent periods.

In connection therewith, this report presents below non-GAAP operating income and non-GAAP net income, which in each case reflects the corresponding GAAP figures adjusted to exclude the impact of the deferred revenue write-down associated with fair value accounting for acquired businesses as referenced above. Management believes that the presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures assists investors in understanding the Company’s performance between periods by excluding the impact of this deferred revenue write-down and provides a useful measure of the ongoing performance of the Company. Revenue for any such acquired business is deferred and typically recognized over a one-to-two year period following the completion of any particular acquisition, so our GAAP revenues (and, thus, our GAAP operating income and net income) for this one-to-two year period will not reflect the full amount of revenues that would have been reported if the acquired deferred revenue was not written down to fair value. A reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to the corresponding GAAP measures is set forth below.

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

GAAP income from continuing operations

 

$

13,251

 

 

$

8,838

 

 

$

4,791

 

Interest income

 

 

(2,444

)

 

 

(870

)

 

 

(574

)

Interest expense

 

 

130

 

 

 

132

 

 

 

102

 

Income tax provision

 

 

3,324

 

 

 

1,302

 

 

 

2,961

 

Stock based compensation expense

 

 

1,777

 

 

 

1,736

 

 

 

1,895

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

24,231

 

 

 

24,047

 

 

 

20,366

 

Change in fair value of cost method investments

 

 

1,271

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations

 

$

41,540

 

 

$

35,185

 

 

$

29,541

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GAAP net income

 

$

32,217

 

 

$

10,004

 

 

$

3,755

 

Interest income

 

 

(2,444

)

 

 

(870

)

 

 

(574

)

Interest expense

 

 

130

 

 

 

131

 

 

 

102

 

Income tax provision

 

 

13,783

 

 

 

529

 

 

 

2,393

 

Stock based compensation expense

 

 

1,686

 

 

 

1,852

 

 

 

1,968

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

24,412

 

 

 

26,283

 

 

 

22,207

 

Change in fair value of cost method investments

 

 

1,271

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

 

$

71,055

 

 

$

37,929

 

 

$

29,851

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GAAP operating income

 

$

15,491

 

 

$

9,407

 

 

$

7,171

 

Adjustment for deferred revenue write-down

 

 

887

 

 

 

1,621

 

 

 

3,838

 

Non-GAAP operating income

 

$

16,378

 

 

$

11,028

 

 

$

11,009

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GAAP net income

 

$

32,217

 

 

$

10,004

 

 

$

3,755

 

Adjustment for deferred revenue write-down, net of tax

 

 

709

 

 

 

1,413

 

 

 

2,371

 

Non-GAAP net income

 

$

32,926

 

 

$

11,417

 

 

$

6,126

 

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FINANCIAL OUTLOOK FOR 2019

The Company provides projections and other forward-looking information in this “Financial Outlook for 2019” section within “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” This section contains many forward-looking statements, particularly relating to the Company’s future financial performance. These forward-looking statements are estimates based on information currently available to the Company, are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, and are subject to the precautionary statements set forth in the introduction in Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the risks and uncertainties described in Item 1A, Risk Factors and elsewhere in this report, as well as additional risks or uncertainties not presently known by us, or that we currently deem immaterial. Actual results are likely to differ, and in the past have differed, materially from those forecast by the Company, depending on the outcome of various factors, including, but not limited to, those set forth in Item 1A, Risk Factors.

 

We are providing 2019 financial guidance as set forth below:

 

Full-Year 2019 Guidance

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Workforce Solutions

$

207

 

-

$

213

 

million

Provider Solutions

$

44

 

-

$

45

 

million

Consolidated

$

251

 

-

$

258

 

million

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Income

$

10.0

 

-

$

12.4

 

million

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capital Expenditures

 

 

 

 

$

35

 

million

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annual Effective Income Tax Rate

 

26

 

-

 

28

 

percent

The above guidance includes the acquisition of Providigm, LLC, which was consummated on January 10, 2019 and is included in our Workforce Solutions segment.

During 2019, we anticipate higher operating expenses associated with our expanded, new corporate office—which consolidates our middle Tennessee operations, and investments in product development and sales of our new resuscitation products, as well as investments to support the growth and expanded market positioning of solutions attained through the acquisition of Providigm, LLC.

We anticipate that capital expenditures associated with our office consolidation to a central location in Nashville, Tennessee will approximate $15 million of the $35 million total estimate during 2019.

This consolidated guidance does not include the impact of any other acquisitions that we may complete during 2019.

SELECTED QUARTERLY OPERATING RESULTS

The following tables set forth selected statements of income data for each of the four quarters in the periods ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. The information for each quarter has been prepared on the same basis as the audited statements included in other parts of this report and, in our opinion, includes all adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation of the results of operations for these periods. You should read this information in conjunction with HealthStream’s Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this report. The operating results for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future. Revenues from our subscription-based products are recognized ratably over the subscription term.

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Quarter Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

September 30,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2018

 

 

2018

 

 

2018

 

 

 

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

STATEMENT OF INCOME DATA:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues, net

 

$

54,858

 

 

$

57,008

 

 

$

59,925

 

 

$

59,825

 

Total operating costs and expenses

 

 

51,128

 

 

 

52,744

 

 

 

55,264

 

 

 

56,988

 

Operating income

 

 

3,730

 

 

 

4,264

 

 

 

4,661

 

 

 

2,837

 

Income from continuing operations

 

 

3,629

 

 

 

3,656

 

 

 

3,036

 

 

 

2,931

 

Income (loss) from discontinued operations

 

 

20,217

 

 

 

(1,111

)

 

 

 

 

 

(141

)

Net income

 

$

23,846

 

 

$

2,545

 

 

$

3,036

 

 

$

2,790

 

Net income per share - diluted (1) :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continuing operations

 

$

0.11

 

 

$

0.11

 

 

$

0.09

 

 

$

0.09

 

Discontinued operations

 

 

0.63

 

 

 

(0.03

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income per share - diluted

 

$

0.74

 

 

$

0.08

 

 

$

0.09

 

 

$

0.09

 

Weighted average shares of common stock outstanding - diluted

 

 

32,132

 

 

 

32,378

 

 

 

32,415

 

 

 

32,416

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quarter Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

September 30,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2017

 

 

2017

 

 

2017

 

 

 

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

STATEMENT OF INCOME DATA:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues, net

 

$

51,967

 

 

$

52,920

 

 

$

54,743

 

 

$

55,269

 

Total operating costs and expenses

 

 

49,602

 

 

 

50,119

 

 

 

52,012

 

 

 

53,758

 

Operating income

 

 

2,365

 

 

 

2,801

 

 

 

2,731

 

 

 

1,511

 

Income from continuing operations

 

 

1,709

 

 

 

2,225

 

 

 

1,735

 

 

 

3,170

 

(Loss) income from discontinued operations

 

 

(424

)

 

 

41

 

 

 

769

 

 

 

778

 

Net income

 

$

1,285

 

 

$

2,266

 

 

$

2,504

 

 

$

3,948

 

Net income per share - diluted (1) :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continuing operations

 

$

0.05

 

 

$

0.07

 

 

$

0.05

 

 

$

0.10

 

Discontinued operations

 

 

(0.01

)

 

 

 

 

 

0.03

 

 

 

0.02

 

Net income per share - diluted

 

$

0.04

 

 

$

0.07

 

 

$

0.08

 

 

$

0.12

 

Weighted average shares of common stock outstanding - diluted

 

 

32,104

 

 

 

32,229

 

 

 

32,217

 

 

 

32,236

 

 

(1) – Due to the nature of interim earnings per share calculations, the sum of quarterly earnings per share amounts may not equal the reported earnings per share for the full year.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Net cash provided by operating activities was approximately $44.3 million during 2018 compared to $42.6 million during 2017, an increase of 4%. The number of days sales outstanding (DSO) was 59 days for 2018 compared to 64 days for 2017. The Company calculates DSO by dividing the average accounts receivable balance (excluding unbilled and other receivables) by average daily revenues for the year. The improvement in DSO resulted from improved collections during the year primarily in our Provider Solutions segment. The Company’s primary sources of cash were receipts generated from the sales of our products and services. The primary uses of cash to fund operations included personnel expenses, sales commissions, royalty payments, payments for contract labor and other direct expenses associated with delivery of our products and services, and general corporate expenses.

Net cash provided by investing activities was approximately $36.7 million during 2018 while $8.8 million of cash was used in investing activities during 2017. During 2018, the Company received net proceeds from the sale of the PX business of $44.0 million and maturities of marketable securities of $69.0 million. These sources of cash were partially offset by $57.1 million in purchases of marketable securities, $11.3 million spent for capitalized software development, $7.2 million for purchases of property and equipment, and $833,000 in minority investments. During 2017, the Company purchased $83.3 million of marketable securities, spent $9.6 million for capitalized software development, and purchased $5.5 million of property and equipment. These uses of cash were partially offset by maturities of marketable securities of $90.1 million.

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Cash used in financing activities was approximately $30.3 million during 2018 while $1,000 was provided by financing activities during 2017. The primary uses of cash during 2018 related to $32.4 million for payments of cash dividends, $338,000 for payments of payroll taxes from stock based compensation arrangements, $100,000 for payment of debt issue costs, and $38,000 for payment of an earn-out related to a prior acquisition. During 2018, the primary source of cash from financing activities resulted from $2.6 million from the exercise of employee stock options. During 2017, the primary source of cash from financing activities resulted from $413,000 from the exercise of employee stock options. The primary uses of cash during 2017 related to $412,000 for payments of payroll taxes from stock based compensation arrangements.

Our balance sheet reflects positive working capital of $134.6 million at December 31, 2018 compared to $98.7 million at December 31, 2017. The increase in working capital was primarily due to net cash provided by operating activities. The Company’s primary source of liquidity is $168.8 million of cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities. The Company also has a $50.0 million revolving credit facility loan agreement, all of which was available at December 31, 2018. For additional information regarding our revolving credit facility, see Note 13 to the Company’s consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report.

We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, cash generated from operations, and available borrowings under our revolving credit facility will be sufficient to meet anticipated working capital needs, new product development, and capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months.

The Company’s growth strategy includes acquiring businesses that provide complementary product and services. It is anticipated that future acquisitions, if any, would be effected through cash consideration, stock consideration, or a combination of both. The issuance of our stock as consideration for an acquisition or to raise additional capital could have a dilutive effect on earnings per share and could adversely affect our stock price. The revolving credit facility contains financial covenants and availability calculations designed to set a maximum leverage ratio of outstanding debt to consolidated EBITDA (as defined in our credit facility) and an interest coverage ratio of consolidated EBITDA to interest expense. Therefore, the maximum borrowings against the revolving credit facility would be dependent on the covenant values at the time of borrowing. As of December 31, 2018, the Company was in compliance with all covenants. There can be no assurance that amounts available for borrowing under our revolving credit facility will be sufficient to consummate any possible acquisitions, and we cannot assure you that if we need additional financing that it will be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. Failure to generate sufficient cash flow from operations or raise additional capital when required in sufficient amounts and on terms acceptable to us could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements and Contractual Obligations

The Company’s off-balance sheet arrangements primarily consist of operating leases, contractual obligations, and our revolving credit facility, which is described further in Note 13 to the Company’s consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report.

The following table presents a summary of future anticipated payments due by the Company under contractual obligations with firm minimum commitments as of December 31, 2018, excluding amounts already recorded in the consolidated balance sheets (in thousands):

 

 

Payments due by period

 

 

 

Less than 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

More than 5