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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED December 31, 2019

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM        TO

Commission File Number 000-27701

HEALTHSTREAM, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Tennessee

 

62-1443555

(State or other jurisdiction of

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

incorporation or organization)

 

 

 

 

 

500 11th Avenue North, Suite 1000

 

37203

Nashville, Tennessee

 

(Zip Code)

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

 

 

(615) 301-3100

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities Registered Pursuant To Section 12(b) Of The Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock (Par Value $0.00)

HSTM

Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

Securities Registered Pursuant To Section 12(g) Of The Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 of 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the Common Stock issued and outstanding and held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based upon the closing sales price for the Common Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2019 was $671.1 million. All executive officers and directors of the registrant have been deemed, solely for the purpose of the foregoing calculation, to be “affiliates” of the registrant.

As of February 24, 2020, there were 32,379,741 shares of the Registrant’s common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.

 

 


 

Table of Contents

HEALTHSTREAM, INC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business.

 

1

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

10

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

22

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

22

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

22

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

22

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

23

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data.

 

25

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

26

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

 

36

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

 

37

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

66

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

66

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

66

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

67

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

67

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

67

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

67

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

67

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

68

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

69

 

 

Signatures

 

70

 

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

PART I

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Such forward-looking statements include, among others, those statements including the words “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “believes,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “continue,” and similar language or the negative of such terms or other comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance, or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements included herein. Factors that might cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section Risk Factors in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and elsewhere in this document. In addition, factors that we are not currently aware of, or that we currently deem immaterial, could harm our future operating results. You should carefully review the risks described in other documents HealthStream files from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. HealthStream undertakes no obligation to publicly release any revisions to the forward-looking statements to reflect future events or circumstances after the date of this document.

Item 1. Business

OVERVIEW AND HISTORY

HealthStream, Inc. (HealthStream or the Company) provides workforce and provider solutions for healthcare organizations—all designed to support the people that deliver patient care, which in turn, supports the improvement of business and clinical outcomes. Delivered primarily as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), our solutions focus on some of the most significant challenges facing the healthcare workforce and healthcare organizations today, including the need to effectively manage, retain, engage, and develop healthcare workforce talent; meet rigorous compliance requirements; and efficiently manage ongoing medical staff credentialing and privileging processes.

With approximately 30 years of experience, HealthStream is recognized as a leading innovator and thought leader in the healthcare industry for its healthcare workforce solutions. Using technology to enhance learning and productivity, HealthStream pioneered the delivery of online learning for hospitals’ required regulatory training as Internet-based training was first introduced. Stemming from that early success, demand for expanded learning solutions led the Company to build what is now a full ecosystem of diverse workforce and clinical-focused applications, courseware, assessments, and talent management programs.

HealthStream believes that the key to quality patient care is—and always has been—the people who deliver care. To that end, the Company’s solutions support the recruiting, retaining, engaging, assessing, developing, credentialing, and privileging of the healthcare workforce, including medical staff who provide patient care in our customers’ organizations.

Headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee, the Company was incorporated in 1990 and began providing its SaaS-based workforce solutions in 1999 and its provider solutions in 2012. Including additional offices in Nashville, Tennessee; Jericho, New York; San Diego, California; Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; and Boulder, Colorado, HealthStream had 849 full-time and 27 part-time employees as of December 31, 2019.

INDUSTRY BACKGROUND

According to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), spending in the healthcare industry reached over $3.6 trillion in 2018, or 17.7% of the U.S. gross domestic product. Hospital care expenditures in 2018 accounted for approximately 32.7% of the $3.6 trillion industry. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of January 2020, approximately 20.1 million professionals are employed in the healthcare segment of the domestic economy, with approximately 5.2 million employed in acute-care hospitals and, according to CMS, approximately 5.3 million employed in healthcare organizations throughout the continuum of care, the primary target markets for our products. (Organizations in the continuum of care employ approximately 1.5 million employees in ambulatory centers, approximately 3.5 million employees in post-acute care facilities, and approximately 300,000 employees in health & human services facilities.)

All of the approximately 5.2 million hospital-based healthcare professionals that work in the nation’s approximately 4,700 acute-care, critical access, and children’s hospitals that are registered with Medicare are required by federal and state mandates and accrediting bodies to complete training in a number of areas. This training includes safety training mandated by both the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and The Joint Commission (an independent, not-for-profit organization that accredits and certifies healthcare organizations and programs in the United States), as well as

1


 

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training on patient information confidentiality required under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).

In hospitals, staffing issues and personnel shortages have also contributed to the need for facility-based workforce development as well as additional assessment and competency-based training. An ongoing nursing shortage, for example, is resulting in skill gaps and rising costs. By 2028, more than 371,000 new Registered Nurse (RN) jobs are projected to be added to the workforce from 2018, surging from approximately 3.06 million jobs in 2018 to a projected 3.43 million jobs, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. We believe that offering training and education for hospital personnel is increasingly being utilized as a retention and recruitment incentive.

Many healthcare professionals use continuing education to keep abreast of the latest developments as well as meet licensing and certification requirements. Continuing education is required for nurses, emergency medical services personnel, first responder personnel, radiologic personnel, and physicians. Pharmaceutical and medical device companies must also provide their medical industry sales representatives with training mandated for the healthcare industry and training for new products. Such companies also provide support and content for education and training of audiences that use their products in healthcare organizations.

The healthcare education and training industry is highly fragmented, varies significantly in delivery methods (i.e., online products, live events, written materials, and technology-enabled manikins for simulation-based training), and is composed of a wide variety of entities competing for customers. The sheer volume of healthcare information available to satisfy continuing education needs, rapid advances in medical developments, and the time constraints that healthcare professionals face can make it difficult to quickly and efficiently access the continuing education content most relevant to an individual’s practice or profession. Historically, healthcare professionals have received continuing education and training through offline publications, such as medical journals or by attending conferences and seminars. In addition, other healthcare workers and pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers’ sales and internal regulatory personnel usually fulfill their training from external vendors or internal training departments. While these approaches satisfy the ongoing education and training requirements, they are typically costly and inconvenient. In addition, live courses are often limited in the breadth of offerings and do not provide a method for tracking training completion. The results of these traditional methods, both from a business and compliance standpoint, are difficult to track and measure.

Provider data management has become more complex and arduous for healthcare organizations. Spurred by The Joint Commission Medical Staff standards and other regulatory requirements, credentialing and privileging has been transformed from a periodic review to continuous, evidence-driven analysis of professional competency and provider performance. This transformation requires ongoing, automatic monitoring of licenses, sanctions, and exclusions, as well as expanding the scope of review at initial credentialing and re-credentialing. In addition, provider enrollment processes have compounded in difficulty. For example, a single provider may need to enroll annually with some 30 to 40 payers, with each payer application often taking two to four hours to complete.

Finally, the hospital industry continues to operate under intense pressure to reduce costs as a result of potential reductions in government reimbursement rates and increased focus on cost containment consistent with participation of patients in managed care programs, among other factors. In addition, many hospitals, as well as pharmaceutical and medical device companies, may continue to experience rising operating costs, coupled with increased pressure to measure and report on the outcomes of the dollars spent on training. Our products and services are designed to meet these needs by reducing healthcare organizations’ costs of training while improving learning outcomes, enhancing reporting capabilities, and supporting customers’ business objectives.

HEALTHSTREAM’S SOLUTIONS

During the year ended December 31, 2019, HealthStream’s products, services, and operations were organized into two business segments—Workforce Solutions and Provider Solutions—that collectively help healthcare organizations meet their ongoing clinical development, talent management, training, education, assessment, competency management, compliance, provider credentialing & privileging management, and provider enrollment needs. HealthStream’s solutions are provided to a wide range of customers within the healthcare industry across the continuum of care.

 

On February 12, 2018, the Company divested its Patient Experience (PX) business to Press Ganey for $65.2 million in cash (after giving effect to the post-closing working capital adjustment). This sale of the PX business resulted in the divestiture of the Company’s patient experience solutions segment.

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HealthStream Workforce Solutions — Our workforce development solutions, which are comprised primarily of SaaS, subscription-based products, are used by healthcare organizations to meet a broad range of their clinical development, talent management, training, certification, competency assessment, performance appraisal, and additional needs. Our numerous content libraries allow customers to subscribe to a wide array of courseware, which includes content from leading healthcare and nursing associations, medical and healthcare publishers, and other content providers. Additionally, medical device companies and other industry partners offer online training support through HealthStream’s platform for their products.

HealthStream’s SaaS-based platform has long been one of the most widely adopted workforce development platforms in healthcare. To facilitate innovation and growth of our ecosystem, HealthStream’s new platform technology, hStream™, was launched in 2018. hStream is the essential technology working behind the scenes that powers activity in the HealthStream ecosystem. The Company’s existing and new customers are gradually upgrading to the hStream platform, which is, all together, anticipated to be a multi-year transition for HealthStream. At December 31, 2019, HealthStream had contracts with customers for approximately 3.15 million subscriptions to hStream, which included an addition of 1.64 million in 2019 alone. The transition to the hStream platform supports our strategic advancement toward a Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) approach.

Pricing for hStream and HealthStream’s workforce applications is primarily subscription-based, with fees based on the number of subscriptions, solutions provided, and other factors. We offer training, implementation, and account management services to facilitate adoption of our subscription-based solutions. Fees for training are based on the time and efforts of the personnel involved. Implementation fees vary based on the size, scope, and complexity of the project. Our platform and subscription-based solutions are hosted on a combination of private-cloud infrastructure and public-cloud infrastructure, leveraging Amazon Web Services and Azure, which allows authorized personnel access to our services through the Internet, thereby eliminating the need for onsite local implementations of installed workforce development products.

Other Applications on our Platform — HealthStream offers an array of other applications on our platform, each serving a unique function for hospitals and health systems. Each application on our platform has its own value. Examples of individual applications that are offered on our platform include applications for learning, performance appraisal, compensation management, succession planning, competency management, disclosure management, clinical development, simulation-based education, quality management, and industry training.

HealthStream Provider Solutions – Our provider solutions are offered through our business segment that is branded in the marketplace as VerityStream. VerityStream delivers enterprise-class solutions to transform the healthcare provider experience for healthcare organizations and providers. We currently serve approximately 2,500 hospitals and 1,300 outpatient facilities, including ambulatory surgery centers, urgent care facilities, clinics, medical groups, and more. VerityStream resulted from the combination of Sy.Med Development Inc. (acquired in October 2012), HealthLine Systems (acquired in February 2015), Morrisey Associates, Inc. (acquired in August 2016), and CredentialMyDoc (acquired in December 2019). As of December 31, 2019, VerityStream had 256 employees with headquarters in Boulder, Colorado and satellite offices in San Diego, California and Chicago, Illinois, as well as employees located in the Nashville, Tennessee corporate office.

Our legacy products include EchoCredentialing™ and MSOW™, comprehensive platforms that manage medical staff credentialing and privileging processes for hospitals; EchoOneApp™, a provider enrollment platform for medical groups; CredentialMyDoc™, a SaaS solution to credential providers, enroll providers with payers for reimbursement, and apply and maintain privileges, especially in ambulatory care settings; and EchoAccess™, our enterprise class platform to support hospital call centers with physician referral and provider directories functionalities.

In January 2018, we announced the launch of our SaaS-based provider credentialing, privileging, and enrollment solution - Verity, which was rebranded in 2019 as VerityStream. As a SaaS-solution, VerityStream includes an intuitive, modern user experience that delivers a continual stream of platform enhancements, evidence-based content, and curated data. A subscription to this infrastructure provides healthcare organizations with tools to support the provider lifecycle from recruiting, application submission, verification of licensure and other credentials, privileging, appointments by credentialing committees, enrollment, network management, onboarding, and performance evaluation of providers. As of December 31, 2019, more than 200 healthcare organizations had contracted for the VerityStream SaaS platform.

BUSINESS ACQUISITIONS

We acquired Providigm, LLC in January 2019, and we acquired substantially all the assets of CredentialMyDoc in December 2019. For additional information regarding acquisitions, please see Note 8 of the Consolidated Financial Statements and Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, included elsewhere in this report.

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CUSTOMERS

We provide our solutions to customers across a broad range of entities within the healthcare industry, including private, not-for-profit, and government entities, as well as pharmaceutical and medical device companies. We derive a substantial portion of our revenues from a relatively small number of customers, although no single customer represented more than 10 percent of our revenues during 2019, 2018, or 2017. Customers that have purchased or contracted for products and services from HealthStream include CHRISTUS Health; HCA Holdings, Inc.; Community Health Systems, Inc.; McLaren Health Care Corporation; Infirmary Health, and Sutter Health.

SALES AND MARKETING

We market our products and services primarily through our direct sales teams, which are based out of our various office locations as well as remote home office locations. As of December 31, 2019, our Workforce Solutions sales personnel consisted of 143 employees who carried sales quotas, and our Provider Solutions sales personnel consisted of 34 employees who carried sales quotas.

We conduct a variety of marketing programs to promote our products and services, including product catalogs, user groups, trade shows, internet promotion and demonstrations, telemarketing campaigns, public relations, distribution of product-specific literature, direct mail, advertising, and in partnership with third parties. We have marketing teams that are responsible for these initiatives and for working with and supporting our product management and sales teams. At December 31, 2019, our marketing personnel consisted of 29 employees.

OPERATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY

We believe our ability to establish and maintain long-term customer relationships, obtain recurring sales, and develop and maintain new and existing products are dependent on the strength of our operations, customer service, product development and maintenance, training, and other support teams. As of December 31, 2019, our Workforce Solutions operations team consisted of 367 employees associated with customer support, implementation services, training, product management, software development and quality assurance, and project management; and our Provider Solutions operations team consisted of 214 employees associated with implementation services, training, data integration, product management, software development and quality assurance, credentials verification, consulting, and other functions.

Our services are designed to be reliable, secure, and scalable. Our software is a combination of proprietary and commercially available software and operating systems. Our software solutions support hosting and management of content, publication of our websites, execution of courseware, registration and tracking of users, tracking and reporting of physician credentialing and provider enrollment information, and reporting of information for both internal and external use. We designed the platforms that provide our services to allow each component to be independently scaled by adding commercially available hardware and a combination of commercially available and proprietary software components.

Our software applications, servers, and network infrastructure that deliver our services are hosted by a combination of third-party data center providers and cloud-based infrastructure. We maintain fully redundant disaster recovery data centers which are located in geographically separate locations. Our technology equipment is maintained in secure, limited access environments, supported by redundant power, environmental conditioning, and network connectivity, and we follow industry best practices for backup and disaster recovery. Company personnel monitor all servers, networks, and systems on a continuous basis, and we employ enterprise firewall systems and data abstraction to protect our databases, customer information, and courseware library from unauthorized access.

COMPETITION

In addition to the competing healthcare education delivery methods in the industry, we also have direct competitors. In our Workforce Solutions business segment, a number of companies offer competitive learning management products and talent management modules to the healthcare industry. We compete with companies such as Cornerstone OnDemand, Healthcare Source, SABA, Oracle, SAP, Infor, and Workday, who provide their services to multiple industries, including healthcare. We also compete with large medical publishers that have operating units that focus on healthcare, such as Relias Learning, which is owned by Bertelsmann. In our Provider Solutions business segment, we have competition primarily from several large companies, such as Symplr, Verisys, MD-Staff, AMN Healthcare, as well as from a broadening array of smaller companies.

We believe our Workforce Solutions, which include both products and services that facilitate education, training, assessment, and development for healthcare professionals, offer a wide assortment of content, functionality, and applications provided on a single platform over the Internet and provide us with a competitive advantage. In our Provider Solutions business segment, we believe the scope and quality of our products, capability to connect medical staff credentialing with

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provider enrollment, and innovative new predictive analytics, provide us with a competitive advantage. We believe that the principal competitive factors affecting the marketing of our Workforce and Provider Solutions to the healthcare industry include:

 

our technology platform, which combines SaaS-based capabilities and certain PaaS capabilities to capture, track, and report on activities, such as learning, performance, credentialing, and privileging across various modalities, and provides interoperability with external systems such as HRIS and other healthcare-related systems;

 

scope and variety of Internet-based workforce development and provider solutions available, including, without limitation, clinical, compliance, resuscitation, revenue cycle, talent management, credentialing, and privileging solutions;

 

our singular focus on the healthcare industry and our deep healthcare expertise;

 

scope and quality of professional services offered, including implementation, benchmarking, and training;

 

competitive pricing, which supports a return on investment to customers when compared to other alternative delivery methods;

 

customer service and support;

 

effectiveness of sales and marketing efforts; and

 

company reputation.

We believe these capabilities provide us with the ability to improve the quality of healthcare by developing the people who deliver care.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF THE INTERNET AND THE HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY

Regulation of the Internet and the Privacy and Security of Personal Information

The laws and regulations that govern our business may change rapidly. The following are some of the evolving areas of law that are relevant to our business:

 

Privacy and Security Laws. Federal, state, and foreign privacy and security laws and regulations restricting the collection, use, retention, deletion, security, and disclosure of personal information limit our ability to collect information or use and disclose the information in our databases or derive from other sources to generate revenues. It may be costly to implement security or other measures designed to comply with new legislation or changes to existing laws.

 

Content Regulation. Both foreign and domestic governments have adopted and proposed laws governing content and materials transmitted over the Internet. These include laws relating to obscenity, indecency, libel, and defamation. We could be liable if content created, stored, or delivered by us is determined to be in violation of these regulations.

 

Information Security Accountability Regulation. As a business associate of certain of our customers, we are required to report certain breaches of protected health information to our customers, who must in turn notify affected individuals, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and/or other governmental agencies, and, in certain situations, the media. In addition, we are subject to certain state laws that relate to privacy or the reporting of security breaches. For example, California law requires notification of security breaches involving personal information and medical information. We may incur costs to comply with these privacy and security requirements. Because there is little guidance related to many of these laws, it is difficult to estimate the cost of our compliance with these laws. Further, Congress has considered bills that would require companies to engage independent third parties to audit the companies’ computer information security. If the Company experiences a breach of security or if one of the Company’s customers is required to report a breach of security by the Company, the Company’s business could be negatively impacted.

 

Sales and Use Tax. Through December 31, 2019, we collected sales, use, or other taxes on taxable transactions in states in which we have employees or have a significant level of sales activity. While HealthStream believes that this approach is appropriate, other states or foreign jurisdictions may seek to impose tax collection obligations on companies like us that engage in online commerce. If they do, these obligations could limit the growth of electronic commerce in general and adversely impact our business.

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Laws and regulations directly applicable to content regulation, e-commerce, Internet communications, and the privacy and security of personal information are becoming more prevalent. Congress continues to consider laws regarding Internet taxation. The dynamic nature of this regulatory environment increases the uncertainty regarding the marketplace impact of such regulation. The enactment of any additional laws or regulations may increase our cost of conducting business or otherwise harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Regulation of Education, Training, and Other Services for Healthcare Professionals

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA regulations require employers to provide training to employees to minimize the risk of injury from various potential workplace hazards. Employers in the healthcare industry are required to provide training with respect to various topics, including, but not limited to, blood borne pathogens exposure control, laboratory safety, and tuberculosis infection control. OSHA regulations require employers to keep records of their employees’ completion of training with respect to these workplace hazards.

The Joint Commission. The Joint Commission accreditation and certification standards require employers in the healthcare industry to provide certain workplace safety and patient interaction training to employees. Training required by The Joint Commission may include programs on infection control, patient bill of rights, radiation safety, and incident reporting. Healthcare organizations are required to provide and document training on these topics to receive accreditation from The Joint Commission. In addition, The Joint Commission imposes continuing education requirements on physicians that relate to each physician’s specific staff appointments.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. HIPAA regulations restrict how certain organizations (known as Covered Entities), including most healthcare providers and health plans, use and disclose certain individually identifiable healthcare information. HIPAA regulations also require these organizations to provide reasonable and appropriate safeguards to protect the privacy, integrity and confidentiality of individually identifiable healthcare information, whether in paper, oral, or electronic form. Covered Entities are required to establish, maintain, and provide training with regard to their policies and procedures for protecting the integrity and confidentiality of individually identifiable healthcare information and must document training on these topics to support their compliance. Certain HIPAA privacy and security requirements apply to entities (known as Business Associates) that handle individually identifiable healthcare information on behalf of Covered Entities or other Business Associates. Covered Entities, Business Associates, and their subcontractors may be directly subject to criminal and civil sanctions for violations of HIPAA privacy and security standards.

The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC). ANCC, a subsidiary of the American Nurses Association (ANA), provides individuals and organizations throughout the nursing profession with the resources they need to achieve practice excellence. ANCC’s internationally renowned credentialing programs certify nurses in specialty practice areas; recognize healthcare organizations for promoting safe, positive work environments through the Magnet Recognition Program® and the Pathway to Excellence® Program; and accredit providers of continuing nursing education. In addition, ANCC’s Institute for Credentialing Innovation® offers an array of informational and educational services and products to support its core credentialing programs. ANCC certification exams validate nurses’ skills, knowledge, and abilities. More than a quarter million nurses have been certified by ANCC since 1990. More than 80,000 advanced practice nurses are currently certified by ANCC. The ANCC Magnet Recognition Program recognizes healthcare organizations that provide the very best in nursing care and professionalism in nursing practice. The program also provides a vehicle for disseminating best practices and strategies among nursing systems. The ANCC Magnet Recognition Program is a highly regarded standard for nursing excellence. The Pathway to Excellence Program recognizes the essential elements of a high standard nursing practice environment. The designation is earned by healthcare organizations that create work environments where nurses can develop professionally. The award substantiates the professional satisfaction of nurses and identifies best places to work.

Continuing Nursing Education (CNE). State nurse practice laws authorize a state’s board of nursing to establish CNE requirements for professional nurses to maintain valid licensure. CNE requirements vary widely from state to state, with reporting generally on a bi-annual basis. In some states, the CNE requirement only applies to re-licensure of advance practice nurses, while in other states, additional CNEs may be required of this category of nurses. Board certifications (e.g., Certified Nurse Operating Room (CNOR) – certification of perioperative nursing) also require CNE hours/credits, with certain percentages required in specific categories based on the certification type. Failure to obtain the requisite and type of CNE could result in non-renewal of the license or certification. The ANCC Commission on Accreditation is responsible for accrediting or approving organizations to award ANCC nursing continuing professional development (NCPD) credit (contract hours) to activities for a national audience of nurses. State boards of nursing approve individual CNE activities or CE providers that offer CNE activities primarily for nurses within the state. ANCC NCPD credit for online activities is accepted by all state boards of nursing. Our HealthStream CNE Provider Unit is accredited as a provider of NCPD by ANCC. We are also approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing and the Florida Board of Nursing.

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Continuing Medical Education (CME). State licensing boards, professional organizations, and employers require physicians to certify that they have accumulated a minimum number of CME hours to maintain their licenses. Generally, each state’s medical practice laws authorize the state’s board of medicine to establish and track CME requirements. Forty-eight state medical licensing boards currently have CME requirements, as well as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The number of CME hours required by each state ranges from 15 to 50 hours per year. Other sources of CME requirements are state medical societies and practice specialty boards. The failure to obtain the requisite amount and type of CME could result in non-renewal of the physician’s license to practice medicine and/or membership in a medical or practice specialty society. The American Medical Association (AMA) classifies CME activities as either Category 1, which includes formal CME activities, or Category 2, which includes self-designated credit for informal activities that meet certain requirements. CME providers that certify educational activities can only designate those activities for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Most boards of medical examiners nationwide that require CME participation specify AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Only institutions and organizations accredited to provide CME can designate an activity for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) is responsible for awarding accreditation status to state medical societies, medical schools, and other institutions and organizations that provide CME activities for a national audience of physicians. State medical societies, operating under the aegis of the ACCME, accredit institutions and organizations that provide CME activities primarily for physicians within the state or bordering states. We are recognized as an accredited provider of CME for physicians by the ACCME.

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). CMS has summarized its quality strategy vision as “better, smarter, healthier.” The agency is focused on using incentives to improve care, changing how care is delivered, including through improved coordination across healthcare settings and increased attention to population health, and tying payment to value through new payment models. Value-based purchasing (VBP), which links payment more directly to the quality of care provided, is a strategy that can help to transform the current payment system by rewarding providers for delivering high quality, efficient clinical care. Through a number of public reporting programs, demonstration projects, pilot programs, and other initiatives, some voluntary and some mandatory, CMS has launched VBP initiatives in various settings, including hospitals, physician offices, nursing homes, home health services, and dialysis facilities. Since 2017, CMS has focused on its comprehensive deregulatory initiative, “Meaningful Measures,” which identifies priorities for quality measurement and improvement. The framework is intended to improve patient outcomes while also reducing burdens on providers.

Promoting Interoperability Programs (formerly the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Records (EHR) Incentive Programs). CMS renamed the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs to the Promoting Interoperability Programs (The Interoperability Programs) to increase focus on the interoperability of and improving patient access to health information. The Interoperability Programs continue to encourage eligible professionals, eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) to adopt EHR technology by imposing payment reductions for failure to demonstrate meaningful use of certified EHR technology. By putting into action and meaningfully using an EHR system, providers may reap benefits beyond financial incentives–such as reduction in errors, availability of records and data, reminders and alerts, clinical decision support, and e-prescribing/refill automation.

Allied Disciplines. Various allied health professionals are required to obtain continuing education to maintain their licenses. For example, emergency medical services personnel may be required to attain up to 20 continuing education hours per year, all or a portion of which can be fulfilled online. These requirements vary by state and depend on the professional classification of the individual.

Regulation of Educational Program Sponsorship and Support

There are a variety of laws and regulations that affect the relationships between our medical device and pharmaceutical customers and the users of our products and services, including the sponsorship and support of educational programs. For example, the Physician Payment Sunshine Act (Sunshine Act) requires manufacturers of drugs, biological devices, and medical devices covered by Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to CMS payments and other transfers of value, including educational programs, given by such manufacturers to physicians and teaching hospitals, with limited exceptions. CMS regulations require manufacturers to report the physician’s name, business address, and national provider identifier as well as other information including the value, date, form, and nature of what is offered. CMS publishes the information on its website. Manufacturers that do not meet the reporting obligations are subject to significant monetary penalties.

Further, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) has issued Compliance Program Guidance for Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and for the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supply Industry (collectively, the Guidelines). The Guidelines address compliance risks raised by the support of continuing educational activities by pharmaceutical and medical device companies. The Guidelines have affected and may continue to affect the type and extent of commercial support we receive for our continuing education activities. The trade associations for the pharmaceutical and medical device

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industries (PhRMA and AdvaMed, respectively) have also promulgated their own codes of ethics that further restrict the interactions between industry and health care professionals. In addition, the AMA has established its own code of ethics regarding Gifts to Physicians from Industry to provide standards of conduct for the medical profession. We follow the rules and guidelines provided by ACCME, ANCC, and other continuing education accrediting bodies to ensure that our continuing education programming is free from commercial bias and consistent with the Guidelines.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

Current FDA and FTC rules and enforcement actions and regulatory policies, or those that the FDA or the FTC may develop in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to provide existing or future applications or services to our end users or obtain the necessary corporate sponsorship to do so. The FDA and the FTC regulate the form, content, and dissemination of labeling, advertising, and promotional materials, including direct-to-consumer prescription drug and medical device advertising, prepared by, or for, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, or medical device companies. The FTC regulates over-the-counter drug advertising and, in some cases, medical device advertising. Generally, regulated companies must limit their advertising and promotional materials to discussions of the FDA-approved indications. Therefore, any truthful or untruthful information that promotes the use of pharmaceutical or medical device products that is presented with our services is subject to the FDA and FTC requirements and regulatory oversight including criminal, civil and administrative actions. We believe that banner advertisements, sponsorship links, and any educational programs that lack independent editorial control that we may present with our services could be subject to FDA or FTC regulation. While the FDA and the FTC place the principal burden of compliance with advertising and promotional regulations on the advertiser, if the FDA or FTC finds that any regulated information presented with our services violates FDA or FTC regulations, they may take regulatory action against us or the advertiser or sponsor of that information. In addition, the FDA may adopt new regulatory policies that more tightly regulate the format and content of promotional information on the Internet.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND OTHER PROPRIETARY RIGHTS

To protect our proprietary rights, we rely generally on copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws; confidentiality agreements, contracts, and procedures with employees, consultants and other third parties; contractual provisions in license agreements with consultants, vendors, and customers; and use measures designed to control access to our software, documentation, and other proprietary information. We own federal trademark and service mark registrations for several marks, including, without limitation “HEALTHSTREAM”, “HEALTHSTREAM LEARNING CENTER”, “HEALTHSTREAM EPORTFOLIO”, “KNOWLEDGEQ”, and “ONESOURCE.” We also have obtained registration of the “HEALTHSTREAM” mark in certain other countries. Applications for several trademarks are currently pending. However, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining registration of trademarks for which we have applied.

The courseware we license to our customers is developed through a combination of license agreements with publishers and authors, assignments and work-for-hire arrangements with third parties, and development by employees. We require publishers, authors, and other third parties to represent and warrant that their content does not infringe on or misappropriate any third-party intellectual property rights and that they have the right to provide their content and have obtained all third-party consents necessary to do so. Our publishers, authors, and other third parties also agree to indemnify us against certain liability we might sustain due to the content they provide.

If a third party asserts a claim that we or our third-party partners have infringed its patents or other intellectual property right, we may be required to redesign or discontinue products that we currently offer or enter into royalty or licensing agreements. In addition, we license technologies from third parties for incorporation into our services. Licensing agreements with these third parties may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Additionally, despite the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, our efforts may not be adequate. Third parties may infringe or misappropriate our intellectual property, and such violations of our intellectual property are difficult to detect and police. Competitors may also independently develop technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to the technologies we employ in our products or services. If we are unable to safeguard our proprietary rights adequately, our competitors could offer similar services, potentially significantly harming our competitive position and decreasing our revenues.

We hold inbound licenses for certain intellectual property that is used internally, and in some cases, utilized in HealthStream’s products or services. While it may be necessary in the future to seek or renew licenses relating to various aspects of our products and services, we believe, based upon past experience and industry practice, such licenses generally can be obtained on commercially reasonable terms. We believe our operations and products and services are not materially dependent on any single license or other agreement with any third party.

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AVAILABLE INFORMATION

The Company files reports with the SEC, including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and other reports from time to time. The SEC maintains an Internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains the reports, proxy, and other filings made by us electronically. Our website address is www.healthstream.com. Please note that our website address is provided as an inactive textual reference only. We make available, free of charge through our website, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, all amendments to those reports, and other filings made by us with the SEC, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information provided on our website is not part of this report and is not incorporated by reference herein.

OUR EMPLOYEES

As of December 31, 2019, we employed 849 full-time and 27 part-time persons. Our success will depend in large part upon our ability to attract and retain qualified employees. We face competition in this regard from other companies, but we believe that we maintain good relations with our employees. We are not subject to any collective bargaining agreements.

INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

The following is a brief summary of the business experience of each of the executive officers of the Company. Executive officers of the Company are elected by the Board of Directors and serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. The following table sets forth certain information regarding the executive officers of the Company:

 

Name

  

Age

  

Position

Robert A. Frist, Jr.

  

52

  

Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors

J. Edward Pearson

  

57

  

President and Chief Operating Officer

Michael Sousa

  

51

  

Senior Vice President and President, VerityStream

Scott A. Roberts

  

43

  

Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

Jeffrey D. Cunningham            

  

53

  

Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer

Michael M. Collier

  

44

  

Senior Vice President, Corporate Development and General Counsel

Trisha L. Coady

 

44

 

Senior Vice President and General Manager, Clinical Solutions

M. Scott McQuigg

 

52

 

Senior Vice President, hStream Solutions

Robert A. Frist, Jr., one of our co-founders, has served as our chief executive officer and chairman of the board of directors since 1990 and served as our president since 2001. On May 15, 2018, following the appointment of Mr. Pearson as the president of the Company, Mr. Frist no longer served in such position. Mr. Frist is the company’s chief operating decision maker. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Business with concentrations in Finance, Economics, and Marketing from Trinity University.

J. Edward Pearson joined the Company in June 2006 as senior vice president and was promoted to chief operating officer in 2011 and to president on May 15, 2018. He earned a Bachelor of Business Administration in Accounting from Middle Tennessee State University.

Michael Sousa joined the Company in October 2004 and served as senior vice president of sales from January 2010 to June 2014. In June 2014, he was promoted to senior vice president of business development. In February 2015, he was named president of Echo, Inc. (now known as VerityStream), HealthStream’s Provider Solutions business segment, while continuing to serve as a senior vice president of the Company. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree from Boston College and a Master of Business Administration from Boston University.

Scott A. Roberts joined the Company in January 2002 and served as vice president of accounting and finance beginning in January 2015, following service in multiple positions to which he was promoted. Thereafter, Mr. Roberts was appointed as interim chief financial officer in February 2019 and was appointed as chief financial officer and senior vice president of the Company in September 2019. He earned a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from Middle Tennessee State University.

Jeffrey D. Cunningham joined the Company in July 2017 as senior vice president and chief technology officer. Prior to joining the Company, he founded and served as chief technology officer and chief strategy officer for Informatics Corporation of America for twelve years. He earned a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science from University of North Texas.

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Michael M. Collier joined the Company in August 2011 as vice president and general counsel, began serving as the vice president of business development and general counsel shortly thereafter, and was promoted to senior vice president of corporate development and general counsel in July 2017. Mr. Collier also serves as the Company’s Corporate Secretary. He graduated with bachelors and masters degrees in Philosophy and Religion from University of Tennessee-Knoxville and earned a Juris Doctorate (J.D.) from University of California, Berkeley – School of Law.

Trisha L. Coady joined the Company in January 2014 and served as associate vice president and subsequently vice president and general manager of clinical development solutions from June 2015 to November 2018. In November 2018, she was promoted to senior vice president and general manager of clinical solutions. She earned a Science in Nursing degree from Université de Moncton.

M. Scott McQuigg joined the Company in January 2019 as senior vice president of hStream solutions. Prior to joining the Company, he co-founded and served as chief executive officer for GoNoodle for thirteen years. Before this role, he co-founded and served as chief executive officer of HealthLeaders.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

We believe that the risks and uncertainties described below are the significant risks facing the Company as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, and/or prospects could be materially and adversely affected by the occurrence of any of the following risks and uncertainties. Additional risks or uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial, also may adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. Therefore, the risk factors below should not be considered a complete list of potential risks we may face. The trading price of our common stock could also decline due to the occurrence of any of the following risks, as well as risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial.

Risks Related to Our Business Model

We may be unable to effectively execute our growth strategy which could have an adverse effect on our business and competitive position in the industry.

Our business strategy includes increasing our market share and presence through sales to new customers, additional sales to existing customers, introductions of new products and services, participation in our ecosystem, interoperability and integration with our platform, and maintaining strong relationships with our existing customers. Risks that we may encounter in executing our growth strategy include:

expenses, delays, and difficulties in identifying and developing new products or services and integrating such new products or services into our existing organization;

inability to leverage or evolve our customer and partner facing technology platform;

inability to leverage our operational and financial systems and processes sufficiently to support our growth;

inability to generate sufficient revenue from our products to offset investment costs;

inability to effectively identify, manage, and exploit existing and emerging market opportunities;

inability to maintain our existing customer relationships;

inability to identify, attract, and retain partners;

increased competition from new and existing competitors;

lengthy sales cycles, or customers delaying purchasing decisions or payments due to economic conditions;

reduced spending by customers within our target markets;

the loss of a significant customer, including through acquisitions or consolidations;

a negative change in the financial condition or creditworthiness of our customers;

failure of the market for our products and services to grow to a sufficient size or at a sufficient rate; and

inability to hire sufficient number of qualified employees to execute and support the growth of the Company.

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If any of these risks are realized, our business, and our competitive position in the industry, could suffer.

Unfavorable conditions in our industry or the U.S. economy, or reductions in information technology spending, could limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our operating results.

Our operating results may vary based on the impact of changes in our industry or the United States economy on us or our clients. The revenue growth and potential profitability of our business depends on demand for workforce and provider solutions for healthcare providers. We sell our products and services to large, mid-sized and small organizations whose businesses fluctuate based on general economic and business conditions. In addition, a portion of our revenue is attributable to the number of users of our products at each of our clients, which in turn is influenced by the employment and hiring patterns of our clients and potential clients. To the extent that economic uncertainty or weak economic conditions cause our clients and potential clients to freeze or reduce their headcount, demand for our products may be negatively affected. Historically, economic downturns have resulted in overall reductions in spending by some healthcare providers as well as pressure from clients and potential clients for extended billing terms. If economic conditions deteriorate, our clients and potential clients may elect to decrease their workforce development and provider solutions budgets by deferring or reconsidering purchases, which would limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our operating results. In addition, while we do not currently expect that our financial results will be significantly and adversely affected by the coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019, there continue to be significant uncertainties associated with the coronavirus, including with respect to the ultimate geographic spread of the virus, the severity of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, and actions that may be taken by Chinese or other governmental authorities to contain the coronavirus or to treat its impact, and the extent to which the coronavirus outbreak may impact our financial results, including as the result of its possible impact on the economy, including without limitation the healthcare sector, is not certain. There is also uncertainty surrounding U.S. presidential and congressional elections in 2020 and the impact on existing and future healthcare legislation. While we cannot predict the outcome of the elections or any resulting legislative changes, such changes could have a material impact on our business.

We may be unable to effectively identify, complete or integrate the operations of acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments, which would inhibit our ability to execute upon our growth strategy.

As part of our growth strategy, we actively review possible acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or strategic investments that complement or enhance our business. However, we may be unable to source or complete future acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments on acceptable terms, or at all. In addition, if we finance acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic initiatives by issuing equity securities, our existing shareholders may be diluted, which could affect the market price of our stock. As a result, if we fail to properly evaluate and execute acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or strategic investments, our performance or prospects may be seriously harmed. Risks that we may encounter in implementing our acquisition, joint venture, collaborative arrangement, or strategic investment strategies include:

expenses, delays, or difficulties in identifying and integrating acquired companies or joint venture operations, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments into our organization and to otherwise realize expected synergies;

the possibility that we may become responsible for substantial contingent or unanticipated liabilities as the result of an acquisition, joint venture, collaborative arrangement, or other strategic investment;

inability to retain personnel associated with acquired companies, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements or other strategic investments;

loss of material customers and other key business relations associated with acquired companies, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments;

diversion of management’s attention from other initiatives and/or day-to-day operations to effectively execute our growth strategy;

the incorporation of products associated with acquired companies, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments into our product lines;

the increasing demands on our operational and informational technology systems which may arise from any such acquired companies or joint venture operations, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments;

potentially insufficient internal controls over financial activities or financial reporting at any such acquired company that could impact us on a consolidated basis;

the financial performance of acquired entities, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments may have a negative impact on our financial performance; and

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an inability to generate sufficient revenue, profit, and cash flow from acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments to offset our investment costs.

Moreover, although we conduct what we believe to be a prudent level of investigation regarding the operating, financial, and information security conditions of acquired companies, joint ventures, collaborative arrangements, or other strategic investments, an unavoidable level of risk remains regarding the operating performance, financial condition, information security, and potential liabilities of these businesses, and we may not be able to fully assess these risks until a transaction has been completed.

Our ability to accurately forecast our financial performance for certain products and services may be hindered by customer scheduling.

While the revenue we receive from particular products and services in our subscription business may be predictable during the term of the applicable contract, the performance of our subscription business may become more subject to fluctuations between quarterly periods as our solution offerings diversify and become more sophisticated. Certain project-based products, such as consulting, content development, and professional services, are subject to the customers’ involvement in the provision of the product or service. The timing and magnitude of these project-based product and service contracts may vary widely from quarter to quarter and year to year, and thus may affect our ability to accurately forecast our financial performance. In addition, some products can require significant implementation lead times and resources and may require a level of change management efforts from our clients, which may also impact our ability to accurately forecast our financial performance. Additionally, as we expand our revenue generating model such that third parties may pay network connection fees based on sales they make, our ability to forecast revenue from such arrangements may not be predictable.

Our ability to accurately forecast our financial performance may be affected by lengthy and widely varying sales cycles.

The period from our initial contact with a potential customer and their first purchase of our solution typically ranges from three to nine months, and in some cases may be significantly longer. The range in the sales cycle can be impacted by multiple factors, including an increasing trend towards more formal request for proposal processes and more competition within our industry, as well as formal budget timelines which impact timing of purchases by target customers. New products, including those that may compete with or replace our former product offerings, tend to have a longer and more unpredictable revenue ramp period because of varying customer adoption rates. As a result of these factors, we have only limited ability to forecast the timing and type of initial sales. This, in turn, makes it more difficult to forecast our financial performance. Additionally, as we expand our revenue generating model such that third parties may pay network connection fees based on sales they make, our ability to forecast revenue from such arrangements may not be predictable.

We may not be able to maintain our competitive position against current and potential competitors, especially those with significantly greater financial, technical, marketing, or other resources.

Many of our competitors and potential competitors have longer operating histories and significantly greater financial, technical, marketing, or other resources than we do. We encounter direct competition from both large and small companies focused on providing workforce and provider solutions to the healthcare industry. Given the profile and growth of the healthcare industry and the ongoing need for training, simulation, credentialing, and other information products and services, it is likely that additional competitors will emerge. Additionally, mergers of or other strategic transactions by our competitors could weaken our competitive position. Moreover, our lack of market diversification resulting from our concentration on the healthcare industry may make us susceptible to losing market share to our competitors who also offer solutions, and in some cases a more robust suite of solutions, to a cross-section of industries. These companies may be able to respond more quickly than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. Further, most of our customer agreements are for terms ranging from one to five years, with no obligation to renew. The terms of these agreements may enable customers to more easily shift to one of our competitors.

Expanding our business model such that third-parties may pay network connection fees in exchange for the ability to deliver their products through our technology platform and have them featured as part of our ecosystem may result in unpredictability to and/or harm to the operational and financial performance of our business.

Historically, the Company has marketed and sold products and services through our own sales team and for delivery through our technology platform.  More recently, the Company began offering third-parties the ability to utilize their sales teams to market and sell their third-party products and have such products delivered through the Company’s technology platform, provided such third-parties pay a network connectivity fee when such products are sold to customers in our network.  Given that these third parties are responsible for their products and the marketing and selling thereof, the Company may not always be able to ensure the operational, financial, or security-related performance or impact of products controlled by a third-party.  While we have contractual protections with third-parties regarding their products, including but not limited to service levels, information security, confidentiality, data rights, and indemnification against certain breaches, these may not be sufficient to ensure the predictability or performance of such products, or potential negative impacts related thereto.

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The failure to maintain and strengthen our relationships with ecosystem partners or significant changes in the terms of the agreements we have with them may have an adverse impact on our ability to successfully market, sell, and deliver certain product and service offerings.

We have entered into contracts with ecosystem partners, including content, application, infrastructure, technology, and retail channel vendors. Our ability to increase the sales of our products and services depends in part upon maintaining and strengthening relationships with these current and future ecosystem partners. Most of these contracts are on a non-exclusive basis. Certain ecosystem partners may offer multiple products and services, including, in some instances, products or services which may compete with other products and services we offer. Moreover, under contracts with some of our ecosystem partners, we may be bound by provisions that restrict our ability to market and sell our products and services to certain potential customers. The success of these contractual arrangements will depend in part upon the ecosystem partners’ own competitive, marketing, and strategic considerations, including the relative advantages for such ecosystem partners in using alternative products being developed and marketed by them or our competitors, rather than our products and services.

We cannot guarantee that we will be able to maintain and strengthen our relationships with ecosystem partners, that we will be successful in effectively integrating such partners’ products and technology, including without limitation through our emerging PaaS strategy, with, into, or through our own, or that such relationships will be successful in generating additional revenue. If any of these ecosystem partners have negative experiences with our products and services, or seek to amend or terminate the financial or other terms of the contracts or arrangements we have with them, we may need to increase our organizational focus on the types of services and solutions they sell and alter our development, integration, and/or distribution strategies, which may divert our planned efforts and resources from other projects.

We could also be subject to claims and liability as a result of the activities, products, or services of these ecosystem partners and/or our acts or omissions with regard to these ecosystem partners. Even if these claims do not result in liability to us, investigating and defending these claims could be expensive, time-consuming, divert our attention, and result in suspension of or interference with certain offerings to our clients and/or adverse publicity that could harm our business.  

We may not be able to retain distribution rights from our ecosystem partners, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Most of our agreements with ecosystem partners are for initial terms of three or more years. These partners may choose not to renew their agreements with us or may terminate their agreements early if we do not fulfill our contractual obligations. If our partners terminate or fail to renew their agreements with us on as favorable terms, such as a reduction in our revenue share arrangement, it could result in a reduction in the number of courses and solutions we are able to distribute, declines in the number of subscribers to our platforms, and decreased revenues. Most of our agreements with our ecosystem partners are non-exclusive, and our competitors offer, or could offer, solutions that are similar to or the same as those we offer. If our current partners offer or otherwise make available their products and services to users or our competitors on more favorable terms than those offered to us, or increase our license fees, our competitive position, revenue, and our profit margins and prospects could be harmed.

We may not be able to develop new products and services, or enhancements to our existing products and services, or be able to achieve widespread acceptance of new products, services or features, or keep pace with technological developments.

Our growth strategy depends in part on our ability to generate revenue growth through sales to new customers as well as increasing sales of additional subscriptions and other products and services to existing customers. Our identification of additional features, content, products, and services may not result in timely development of complementary products. In addition, the success of certain new products and services may be dependent on continued growth in our customer base. Furthermore, we are not able to accurately predict the volume or speed with which existing and new customers may adopt such new products and services. Because healthcare technology continues to change and evolve, we may be unable to accurately predict and develop new products, features, content, and other products to address the needs of the healthcare industry. Further, the new products, services, and enhancements we develop may introduce significant defects into or otherwise negatively impact our technology platform. While all new products and services are subject to testing and quality control, all software and software-based services are subject to errors and malfunctions. If we release new products, services, and/or enhancements with bugs, defects, or errors or that cause bugs, defects, or errors in existing products, it could result in lost revenues and/or reduced ability to meet contractual obligations and would be detrimental to our business and reputation. If new products, features, or content are not accepted or integrated by new or existing customers, we may not be able to recover the cost of this development, and our financial performance will be harmed. Continued growth of our customer population is dependent on our ability to continue to provide relevant products and services in a timely manner. The success of our business will depend on our ability to continue providing our products and services as well as enhancing our content, product, and service offerings that address the needs of healthcare organizations.

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We may be unable to continue to license our third-party software, on which a portion of our product and service offerings rely, or we may experience errors in this software, which could increase our costs and decrease our revenue.

We use technology components in some of our products that have been licensed from third parties. Future licenses to these technologies may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. The loss of or inability to obtain or maintain any of these licenses could result in delays in the introduction of new products and services or could force us to discontinue offering portions of solutions until equivalent technology, if available, is identified, licensed, and integrated. The operation of our products would be impaired if errors occur in third party technology or content that we incorporate, and we may incur additional costs to repair or replace the defective technology or content. It may be difficult for us to correct any errors in third party products because the products are not within our control. Accordingly, our revenue could decrease, and our costs could increase in the event of any errors in this technology. Furthermore, we may become subject to legal claims related to licensed technology based on product liability, infringement of intellectual property, or other legal theories. Even if these claims do not result in liability to us, investigating and defending these claims could be expensive and time-consuming, and could result in suspension of or interference with certain offerings to our clients and/or adverse publicity that could harm our business.

Financial Risks

A significant portion of our revenue is generated from a relatively small number of customers.

We derive a substantial portion of our revenues from a relatively small number of customers. A termination or material modification of our agreements with any of our significant customers or a failure of these customers to renew their contracts on favorable terms, or at all, could have an adverse effect on our business.

A significant portion of our business is subject to renewal. Therefore, renewals have a significant impact on our revenue and operating results.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, approximately 95% of our net revenue was derived from SaaS-based subscriptions and software licensing agreements. Our product and service contracts typically range from one to five years in length, and customers are not obligated to renew their contract with us after their contract term expires; in fact, some customers have elected not to renew their contract. In addition, our customers may renew at a lower pricing or activity level. Our customers’ renewals may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including but not limited to, their dissatisfaction with our service, a dissipation or cessation of their need for one or more of our products or services, pricing, or competitive product offerings. If we are unable to renew a substantial portion of the contracts that are up for renewal or maintain our pricing, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Failure to adequately expand and optimize our direct sales infrastructure will impede our growth.

We will need to continue to expand and optimize our sales infrastructure in order to grow our customer base and our business. Identifying and recruiting qualified personnel and training them in our sales methodology, our sales systems, and the use of our software requires significant time, expense, and attention. It can take significant time before our sales representatives are fully trained and productive. Our business may be adversely affected if our efforts to expand and train our direct sales teams do not generate a corresponding increase in revenues. In particular, if we are unable to hire, develop, and retain talented sales personnel or if new direct sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, we may not be able to realize the expected benefits of this investment or increase our revenues.

We may be unable to accurately predict the timing of revenue recognition from sales activity as it is often dependent on achieving certain events or performance milestones, and this inability could impact our operating results.

Our ability to recognize revenue is dependent upon several factors in order for us to implement customers on our subscription-based platform and platform applications. If customers do not provide us with the information required to complete implementations in a timely manner, our ability to recognize revenue may be delayed, which could adversely impact our operating results. Some products, including several in our Provider Solutions segment, can require significant implementation lead times and the rate at which customer orders move from backlog to revenue generation in connection with these products may significantly affect the timing of revenue recognition.

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Because we recognize revenue from subscriptions for our products and services over the term of the subscription period, downturns or upturns in sales may not be immediately reflected in our operating results.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, we recognized approximately 95% of our revenue from customers monthly over the terms of their subscription or licensing agreements, which generally have contract terms ranging from one to five years. As a result, much of the revenue we report in each quarter is related to subscription or licensing agreements entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed subscription or licensing agreements in any one quarter will not necessarily be fully reflected in the revenue in that quarter and will negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. In addition, we may be unable to adjust our cost structure to reflect this reduced revenue. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in sales and market acceptance of our products and services may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. Additionally, our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers must be recognized over the applicable subscription term.

We may not be able to meet our strategic business objectives unless we obtain additional financing, which may not be available to us on favorable terms, or at all.

We may need to raise additional funds for various purposes, including to:

 

develop new, or enhance existing, products, services, and technology;

 

respond to competitive pressures;

 

finance working capital requirements;

 

acquire or invest in complementary businesses, technologies, content, or products; or

 

otherwise effectively execute our growth strategy.

At December 31, 2019, we had approximately $172.9 million in cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities. We also have up to $50.0 million of availability under our Revolving Credit Facility, subject to certain covenants, which expires in November 2020.

We actively review possible business acquisitions to complement or enhance our products, services, and technology platforms. We may not have adequate cash and investments or availability under our Revolving Credit Facility to consummate one or more of these acquisitions. We cannot assure you that if we need additional financing, it will be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available or are not available on acceptable terms, our ability to fund expansion, take advantage of available opportunities, develop or enhance services or products, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures would be significantly limited. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity or convertible debt securities, the percentage ownership of our existing shareholders may be reduced.

Goodwill, identifiable intangible assets, and long-lived assets recorded on our balance sheet may be subject to impairment losses that could reduce our reported assets and earnings.

There are inherent uncertainties in the estimates, judgments, and assumptions used in assessing recoverability of goodwill, intangible assets, and long-lived assets. Economic, legal, regulatory, competitive, reputational, contractual, and other factors could result in future declines in the operating results of our business units or market values that do not support the carrying value of goodwill, identifiable intangible assets, and long-lived assets. If the value of our goodwill, intangible assets, or long-lived assets is impaired, accounting principles require us to reduce their carrying value and report an impairment charge, which would reduce our reported assets and earnings for the period in which an impairment is recognized.

We may be affected by healthcare reform efforts and other changes in the healthcare industry that impact us and our clients.

Our clients are concentrated in the healthcare industry, which is subject to changing regulatory, economic, and political conditions. In the past several years, we have experienced an increase in bankruptcies among our customers. This decrease in creditworthiness among certain of our customers along with other economic challenges facing the healthcare sector caused us to record bad debt expense of $0.2 million, $1.0 million and $1.6 million in 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively. Any continuation or escalation of this development could result in our inability to collect amounts owed from existing clients and decrease our ability to gain new clients, which could adversely impact our revenue, results of operations, and ability to execute on our growth strategy.

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The U.S. Congress and certain state legislatures have passed or are considering laws and regulations intended to result in major changes to the U.S. healthcare system. The most prominent of these reform efforts, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Healthcare and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, Affordable Care Act), was designed to increase access to affordable health insurance for U.S. citizens and improve quality of care, but it also has reduced government program spending and imposed operating costs and changes on many of our clients.

Efforts by the presidential administration and certain members of Congress to repeal or make significant changes to the Affordable Care Act, its implementation, and/or its interpretation have cast considerable uncertainty on the future of the law. For example, final rules issued in 2018 expand the availability of association health plans and allow the sale of short-term, limited-duration health plans, neither of which are required to cover all the essential health benefits mandated by the Affordable Care Act. Effective January 1, 2019, the financial penalty associated with the individual mandate was eliminated as part of the tax reform legislation which was enacted in December 2017. These changes may impact the number of individuals that elect to purchase health insurance or the scope of such coverage, if purchased. Because the penalty associated with the individual mandate was eliminated, a federal judge in Texas ruled in December 2018 that the mandate was unconstitutional and determined that the rest of the Affordable Care Act was therefore invalid. In December 2019, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld this decision with respect to the individual mandate but remanded for further consideration the issue of how this affects the rest of the law. Pending this appeals process, the law remains in place pending appeal. There is uncertainty regarding whether, when, and how the Affordable Care Act will be further changed, the ultimate impact of court challenges, how the law will be interpreted and implemented, and the impact of other initiatives intended to reform healthcare delivery, coverage, and/or financial systems. For example, some members of Congress have proposed significantly expanding the coverage of government-funded programs. Any such legal or regulatory developments, as well as other healthcare-related or other developments that adversely impact the business or financial condition of our clients, could reduce the amount of business we receive from such clients and thus have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Some of the recent changes in the healthcare industry have driven consolidation, particularly among health insurance providers. Other industry participants, such as large employer groups and their affiliates, may also introduce financial or delivery system reforms or otherwise intensify competitive pressures. These developments could adversely affect us or our customers and therefore have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

We may discover weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, which may adversely affect investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and consequently the market price of our securities.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires our management to report on and requires our independent public accounting firm to attest to, the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. The rules governing the standards to be met are complex and may require significant process review, documentation and testing, as well as remediation efforts for any identified deficiencies. This process of review, documentation, testing, and remediation may result in increased expenses and require significant attention from management and other internal and external resources. These requirements may also extend to acquired entities and our efforts to integrate those operations into our system of internal controls. Any material weaknesses identified during this process may preclude us from asserting the effectiveness of our internal controls. This may negatively affect our stock price if we cannot effectively remediate the issues identified in a timely manner.

Changes in accounting standards issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, could adversely effect our balance sheet, revenue, and results of operations, and could require a significant expenditure of time, attention and resources, especially by senior management.

Our accounting and financial reporting policies conform to GAAP, which are periodically revised and/or expanded. The application of accounting principles is also subject to varying interpretations over time. Accordingly, we are required to adopt new or revised accounting standards or comply with revised interpretations that are issued from time to time by various parties, including accounting standard setters and those who interpret the standards, such as the FASB and the SEC and our independent registered public accounting firm. Changes to regulations concerning revenue recognition could require us to alter our current revenue accounting practices and cause us to either defer revenue into a future period or to recognize lower revenue in a current period. Likewise, changes to regulations concerning expense recognition could require us to alter our current expense accounting practices and cause us to defer recognition of expense into a future period or to recognize increased expenses in a current period. Such changes could also cause us to alter the manner in which we contract for, sell, and incentivize sales of products and services. Changes to either revenue recognition or expense recognition accounting practices could affect our financial results.

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Risks Related to Operations

Our operating margins could be affected if our ongoing refinement to pricing models for our products and services is not accepted by our customers and the market.

We continue to make changes in the pricing of our product and service offerings so as to increase revenue and meet the needs of our customers. We cannot predict whether the current pricing of our products and services, or any ongoing refinements we make, will be accepted by our existing customer base or by prospective customers. If our customers and potential customers decide not to accept our current or future pricing or product and service offerings, it could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Additionally, ecosystem partners establish the price for some of the products we market and sell, and we do not have control over such price setting or customer acceptance thereof or reaction thereto.

We may be unable to adequately develop our systems, processes, and support in a manner that will enable us to meet the demand for our services.

We have provided our online products and services for a significant period of time and continue to expand our ability to provide our solutions on both a subscription and transactional basis over the Internet or otherwise. Our future success will depend on our ability to effectively develop and maintain our infrastructure, including procurement of additional hardware and software, integrate and interoperate with third party systems, and to implement the services, including customer support, necessary to meet the demand for our products and services. Our inability from time to time to successfully develop the necessary systems and implement the necessary services on a timely basis may result in our customers experiencing delays, interruptions, and/or errors in their service. Such delays or interruptions may cause customers to become dissatisfied with our service and move to competing providers of workforce development and provider solutions services. If this happens, our reputation, results of operations, and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Our business operations could be significantly disrupted if we lose members of, or fail to attract and integrate new members to, our management team.

Our future performance is substantially dependent on the continued services of our management team and our ability to attract, retain, and motivate them. The loss of the services of any of our officers or senior managers, or the inability to attract additional officers or senior managers as appropriate, could harm our business, as we may not be able to find suitable replacements. We do not have employment agreements with any of our key personnel, other than our chief executive officer, and we do not maintain any “key person” life insurance policies.

We may not be able to attract, hire, and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees and, as a result, we may not be able to effectively execute our growth strategy or maintain the quality of our services.

Our future success will depend on our ability to attract, train, motivate, and retain other highly skilled technical, managerial, marketing, sales, and customer support personnel. Competition for certain personnel is intense, especially for software developers, web designers, user experience and interaction designers, and sales personnel, and we may be unable to successfully attract sufficiently qualified personnel. We have experienced in the past, and continue to experience, difficulty hiring qualified personnel in a timely manner for these positions, and we may not be able to fill positions in desired geographic areas or at all. The pool of qualified technical personnel, in particular, is limited in Nashville, Tennessee, where our headquarters are located. Similar challenges exist within our Provider Solutions segment in our locations in San Diego, California, and Boulder, Colorado. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have and some of these companies may offer more lucrative compensation packages. We anticipate needing to continue to maintain or increase the size of our staff to support our anticipated growth, without compromising the quality of our offerings or customer service. Our inability to locate, attract, hire, integrate and retain qualified personnel in sufficient numbers may reduce the quality of our services and impair our ability to grow and adversely impact our financial performance.

We may not be able to upgrade our hardware and software technology infrastructure quickly enough to effectively meet demand for our services or our operational needs.

We must continue to obtain reasonably priced, commercially available hardware, operating software, and hosting services, as well as continue to enhance our software and systems to accommodate the increased use of our platform, the increased content in our library, the expanding amount and type of data we store on behalf of our customers, and the resulting increase in operational demands on our business. Decisions about hardware and software enhancements are based in part on estimated forecasts of the growth in demand for our services. This growth in demand for our services is difficult to forecast and the potential audience for our services is widespread and dynamic. If we are unable to increase the data storage and processing capacity of our systems at least as fast as the growth in demand, our customers may encounter delays or disruptions in their service. Unscheduled downtime or reduced response time of our platforms could harm our business and

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could discourage current and potential customers from using or continuing to use our services and reduce future revenue. If we are unable to acquire, update, or enhance our technology infrastructure and systems quickly enough to effectively meet increased operational demands on our business, that may also have an adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. Further, our applications necessarily must integrate with a variety of systems and technologies. As we develop our platforms and rely on ever changing and improving technologies, we may be impeded by our customers’ and ecosystem partners’ inability to adopt new technologies and technology standards upon which new platform enhancements may be based.    

Our network infrastructure and computer systems and software may fail.

An unexpected event (including but not limited to a cyber-security incident, telecommunications failure, fire, earthquake, or other catastrophic loss) at our Internet service providers’ facilities, at our on-site data center facilities, or our public-cloud infrastructure providers, could cause the loss of critical data and prevent us from offering our products and services for an unknown period of time. System downtime could negatively affect our reputation and ability to sell our products and services and may expose us to significant third-party claims. Our cyber liability and business interruption insurance may not adequately compensate us for losses that may occur. In addition, we rely on third parties to securely store our archived data, house our infrastructure and network systems, and connect us to the Internet. While our service providers have planned for certain contingencies, the failure by any of these third parties to provide these services satisfactorily and our inability to find suitable replacements would impair our ability to access archives and operate our systems and software, and our customers may encounter delays. Such disruptions could harm our reputation and cause customers to become dissatisfied and possibly take their business to a competing provider, which would adversely affect our financial performance.

A data breach or security incident could result in a loss of confidential data, give rise to remediation and other expenses, expose us to liability under HIPAA, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH), foreign data privacy regulations, federal and state privacy laws, consumer protection laws, common law theories or other laws, subject us to litigation and federal and state governmental inquiries, damage our reputation, and otherwise could adversely impact our business.

There are a variety of other state, national, foreign, and international laws and regulations that apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, security, disclosure, transfer, and other processing of personal data. California has passed the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA), which took effect January 1, 2020. The CCPA applies broadly to information that identifies or is associated with any California household or individual, and compliance with the CCPA requires that we implement several operational changes, including processes to respond to individuals’ data access and deletion requests. In addition, many foreign data privacy regulations (including the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which became effective in the European Union on May 25, 2018, and China’s Cybersecurity Law which became effective in 2017) can be more stringent than those in the United States. These laws and regulations are rapidly evolving and changing and could have an adverse effect on our operations. Companies’ obligations and requirements under these laws and regulations are subject to uncertainty in how they may be interpreted by government authorities and regulators. The costs of compliance with, and the other burdens imposed by, these and other laws or regulatory actions may increase our operational costs, affect our customers’ willingness to permit us to use and store personal data, prevent us from selling our products or services, and/or affect our ability to invest in or jointly develop products. We may also face audits or investigations by one or more domestic or foreign government agencies relating to our compliance with these regulations.

We collect and store sensitive information, including intellectual property, individually identifiable health information, provider credentialing and privileging data, and other personally identifiable information, on our networks. The secure maintenance of this information is critical to our business operations. As a result, the continued development and enhancement of controls, processes, and practices designed to protect our information systems from attack, damage, or unauthorized access remain a priority for us. If the security measures that we use to protect customer or personal information are ineffective, we may lose users of our services, which could reduce our revenue, tarnish our reputation, and subject us to significant liability. In addition, if our subcontractors or subprocessors fail to use adequate security or data protection processes or use personal date in an unpermitted or improper manner, we may be liable for certain losses and may damage our reputation.

We have implemented multiple layers of security measures to protect confidential data that we collect and store through technology, processes, and our people, and our defenses are monitored and routinely tested internally and by external parties. We rely, in part, on security and authentication technology licensed from third parties. With this technology, we perform real-time credit card authorization and verification, as well as the encryption of other selected secure customer data. We cannot predict whether these security measures could be circumvented by new technological developments. Further, the audit processes, penetration and vulnerability testing, and controls used within our production platforms, may not be sufficient to identify and prevent errors or deliberate misuse. In addition, our software, databases, and servers may be vulnerable to computer viruses, physical or electronic attacks, and similar disruptions. We may be at increased risk because we outsource certain services or functions to, or have systems that interface with, third parties. For example, third party IT vendors may not provide us with fixes or updates to hardware or software in a manner as to avoid an unauthorized loss or

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disclosure or to address a known vulnerability, which may subject us to known threats or downtime as a result of those delays. Third party vendors that store or have access to our data may not have effective controls, processes, or practices to protect our information from attack, damage, or unauthorized access. A breach or attack affecting any of these third parties could harm our business. We cannot assure that we can prevent all security breaches.

Despite these efforts, a data breach or security incident could result from a variety of circumstances and events, including third-party action, system errors or downtime, employee negligence or error, malfeasance, failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software, databases, or components thereof, power outages, hardware failures, telecommunication failures, user errors, catastrophic events, or threats from malicious persons and groups, new vulnerabilities, and advanced new attacks against information systems. Data incidents could result in interruptions, delays, loss, access, misappropriation, and disclosure or corruption of data which could damage our reputation and could otherwise adversely impact our business. There can be no assurance that we will not be subject to data incidents that bypass our security measures, result in loss of confidential information, or dispute our information systems or business. In addition, data incidents could expose us and our customers to liability under privacy, security, and consumer protection laws, such as HIPAA, CCPA and foreign data privacy regulations, or litigation under these or other laws, including common law theories, and subject us to federal and state governmental inquiries or enforcement, especially if a large number of individuals are affected or if the compromised information is highly sensitive. Like many other organizations, we have experienced data incidents from time to time in the course of our business and handled these incidents in accordance with our internal policies and understanding of the applicable laws. We may need to spend significant resources to protect against security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by any breaches.

Furthermore, we have acquired a number of companies, products, services, and technologies over the years. Although we devote significant resources to address any security issues with respect to such acquisitions, we still may inherit additional risks when we integrate those companies within HealthStream.  Moreover, if a high-profile security breach occurs with respect to an industry peer, our customers and potential customers may lose trust in the security of our solutions in general.

As threats to confidential information continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our internal processes, governance, protective measures, or to investigate and remediate any security vulnerabilities. The occurrence of a data incident and the resulting potential costs and liabilities could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations and harm our business reputation.

We may experience errors or omissions in our software products or processes, including those that deliver provider credentialing, privileging, and payer enrollment services for our hospitals and medical practice customers and those that administer and report on hospital performance, and these errors could result in action taken against us that could harm our business.

Hospitals and medical practices use our credentialing, privileging, and payer enrollment software to manage, validate, and maintain their providers’ credentials and authorization to practice in a particular facility and to maintain authorization to perform care covered by insurance providers. In some instances, we rely on sources outside the Company for information that we use in our credentialing and privileging products. If errors or omissions occur that inaccurately validate or invalidate the credentials of a provider, or improperly deny or authorize a provider to practice in a hospital or medical practice, these errors or omissions could result in litigation brought against us either by our customers, the provider, or other interested parties. For example, an important element in a malpractice case brought against a hospital or other provider could be the validation of proper credentialing for the provider, and any errors or omissions in our products that provide these services could subject us to claims. Further, a list of providers’ privileges may be made available to the general public by hospitals and medical practices, and errors in credentialing and privileging may result in damage to the hospital, medical practice, or provider.

We may be required to indemnify against such claims, and defending against any such claims could be costly and time-consuming and could negatively affect our business.

The expiration of our legacy agreements with Laerdal could adversely affect our business and future results of operations.

Our legacy agreements with Laerdal (Legacy Agreements) for the HeartCode and Resuscitation Quality Improvement (RQI) products expired pursuant to their terms on December 31, 2018 and were not renewed. Revenues associated with sales of HeartCode and RQI products pursuant to the Legacy Agreements have been significant in recent years, although margins on such products have been lower than HealthStream’s average margin. Revenues from these products were $58.9 million in 2019 and are expected to decline to approximately $36.0 million in 2020 (with sequential declines anticipated in each quarter

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of 2020) as we conclude the fulfillment of HeartCode and RQI purchases made prior to December 31, 2018 and will be approximately zero beginning with the first quarter of 2021.

While we have entered into agreements to market, sell, and deliver new resuscitation programs to our customers (i.e., other than HeartCode and RQI), including through our collaboration with the American Red Cross which was announced in January 2019, there is no assurance that we will be successful in efforts to market, sell, or deliver such products. To the extent we are not successful in these efforts and new resuscitation programs do not generate revenue and/or earnings in a manner that supplants the impact of the Legacy Agreements, our revenue and results of operations will be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Government Regulation, Content and Intellectual Property

Government regulation may subject us to investigation, litigation, or liability or require us to change the way we do business.

The laws and regulations that govern our business change rapidly. Evolving areas of law that are relevant to our business include privacy and security laws, proposed encryption laws, content regulation, information security accountability regulation, sales and use tax laws, and regulations and attempts to regulate activities on the Internet. For example, we are directly subject to certain requirements of the HIPAA privacy and security regulations. In addition, we are required through contracts with our customers known as “business associate agreements” to protect the privacy and security of certain personal and health related information. Further, government laws and regulations, such as the Affordable Care Act, that directly affect our customers, can have an indirect impact on our business.

We may lose sales from existing or potential customers, or incur significant expenses, if states are successful in imposing states sales and use taxes on our services to a greater degree than is currently the case or we inherit potential states and use tax compliance issues in connection with acquisitions we may make from time to time. A successful assertion by one or more states that we should collect sales or uses taxes on the sale of our services to a greater degree than is our current practice could result in substantial tax liabilities for past sales, decrease our ability to compete on pricing with other vendors, and otherwise harm our business. Each state has different rules and regulations governing sales and use taxes, and these rules and regulations are subject to varying interpretations that may change over time. We cannot assure you that we will not be subject to sales and use taxes or related penalties for past sales in states where we believe no compliance is necessary.

The rapidly evolving and uncertain regulatory and technology environment could require us to change how we do business or incur additional costs. It may be difficult to predict how changes to these laws and regulations might affect our business. Our current and past privacy and security practices, including any breaches of protected health information or other data, could be subject to review or other investigation by various state and federal regulatory authorities or could become the subject of future litigation.

Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, including those governing privacy and security, could subject us to civil and criminal penalties, subject us to contractual penalties (including termination of our customer agreements), adversely affect our ability to retain clients and attract new clients, damage our reputation, or otherwise have a detrimental impact on our business.

Any reduction or change in the regulation of continuing education and training in the healthcare industry may adversely affect our business.

A portion of our business model is dependent in part on required training and continuing education for healthcare professionals and other healthcare workers resulting from regulations of state and federal agencies, state licensing boards, and professional organizations. Any change in these regulations that reduce the requirements for continuing education and training for the healthcare industry could harm our business. In addition, a portion of our business with pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers and hospitals is predicated on our ability to maintain accreditation status with organizations such as the ACCME and ANCC. The failure to maintain status as an accredited provider could have a detrimental effect on our business.

We may be liable to third parties for content that is sold or made available by us.

We may be liable to third parties for the content sold or made available by us if the text, graphics, software, or other content therein violates copyright, trademark, or other intellectual property rights, if our ecosystem partners violate their contractual obligations to others by providing content that we sell or make available, or if the content is inaccurate, incomplete, or does not conform to accepted standards of care in the healthcare profession. Further, we may be liable to these ecosystem partners

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if we allow access or release and lose control of their intellectual property stored on our platform either due to security issues or through improper release to customers who have not paid for access to such intellectual property. We attempt to minimize these types of liabilities by requiring representations and warranties relating to our intellectual property partners’ ownership of the rights to distribute as well as the accuracy of their intellectual property. We also take necessary measures to review this intellectual property ourselves. Although our agreements with our ecosystem partners in most instances contain provisions providing for indemnification by the ecosystem partners in the event of inaccurate intellectual property, our ecosystem partners may not have the financial resources to meet these indemnification obligations. Alleged liability could harm our business by damaging our reputation, requiring us to incur legal costs in defense, exposing us to awards of damages and costs, and diverting management’s attention away from our business.

Protection of certain intellectual property may be difficult and costly, and our inability to protect our intellectual property could reduce the value of our products and services.

Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights, as well as the intellectual property rights of our ecosystem partners, a third party could, without authorization, copy or otherwise misappropriate our content, information from our databases, or other intellectual property, including that of our third-party ecosystem partners. Our agreements with employees, consultants, and others who participate in development activities could be breached and result in our trade secrets becoming known. Alternatively, competitors and other third parties may independently develop or create content or systems that do not infringe our intellectual property rights. We may not have adequate remedies for such breaches or protections against such competitor developments. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and effective intellectual property protection may not be available in those jurisdictions.

Our business could be harmed if unauthorized parties infringe upon or misappropriate our intellectual property, proprietary systems, content, platform, services, or other information or the intellectual property of our ecosystem partners. Our efforts to protect our intellectual property through copyright, trademarks, and other controls, as well as our efforts to protect the intellectual property of our ecosystem partners, may not be adequate. For instance, we may not be able to secure trademark or service mark registrations for marks in the United States or in foreign countries, or to secure patents for our proprietary products and services, and even if we are successful in obtaining patent and/or trademark registrations, these registrations may be opposed or invalidated by a third party. We also have certain contractual obligations to protect the intellectual property of our ecosystem partners and could be required to indemnify such ecosystem partners if we do not adequately provide such protections.

There has been substantial litigation in the software services and healthcare technology industries regarding intellectual property assets, particularly patents. Third parties may claim infringement by us with respect to current and future products, trademarks, or other proprietary rights, and we may counterclaim against such third parties in such actions. Any such claims or counterclaims could be time-consuming, result in costly litigation, divert management’s attention, cause product release delays, require us to redesign our products, restrict our use of the intellectual property subject to such claim, or require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements, any of which could have an adverse effect upon our business, financial condition, and operating results. Such royalty and licensing agreements may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

We may be liable for infringing the intellectual property rights of others.

Our competitors may develop similar intellectual property, duplicate our products and/or services, or design around any patents or other intellectual property rights we hold. Litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity and scope of the patents, intellectual property, or other proprietary rights of third parties, which could be time consuming and costly and have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition. Intellectual property infringement claims could be made against us and our ecosystem partners, especially as the number of our competitors grows. These claims, even if not meritorious, could be expensive and divert our attention from operating our company and result in a temporary inability to use the intellectual property subject to such claim. In addition, if we, our ecosystem partners, and/or customers become liable to third parties for infringing their intellectual property rights, we could be required to pay a substantial damage award and develop comparable non-infringing intellectual property, to obtain a license, or to cease providing the content or services that contain the infringing intellectual property. We may be unable to develop non-infringing intellectual property or obtain a license on commercially reasonable terms, if at all.

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We use open source software in our products, which could subject us to litigation or other actions.

We use open source software in our products and may use more open source software in the future. From time to time, there have been claims challenging the ownership of open source software against companies that incorporate open source software into their products. As a result, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software. Litigation could be costly for us to defend, have a negative effect on our operating results and financial condition or require us to devote additional research and development resources to change our products. In addition, if we were to combine our proprietary software products with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain of the open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software products. If we inappropriately use open source software, we may be required to re-engineer our products, discontinue the sale of our products, or take other remedial actions.

Other Risks

It may be difficult for a third party to acquire our company, and this could depress our stock price.

Tennessee corporate law and our charter and bylaws contain provisions that could delay, defer, or prevent a change in control of our company or our management. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other shareholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. These provisions:

 

authorize us to issue "blank check" preferred stock, which is preferred stock that can be created and issued by the board of directors, without prior shareholder approval, with rights senior to those of common stock;

 

provide for a staggered board of directors comprised of three classes such that it would take three successive annual meetings to replace all directors;

 

prohibit shareholder action by written consent; and

 

establish advance notice requirements for submitting nominations for election to the board of directors and for proposing matters that can be acted upon by shareholders at a meeting.

These provisions, either alone or in combination with each other, give our current directors a substantial ability to influence the outcome of a proposed acquisition of the Company.  These provisions would apply even if an acquisition or other significant corporate transaction was considered beneficial by some of our shareholders.  If a change in control or change in management is delayed or prevented by these provisions, the market price of our securities could decline. As a result, these provisions could limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

Our principal office is located in Nashville, Tennessee, which is primarily used to support our workforce solutions operations and corporate functions. Our lease for approximately 92,000 square feet at this location will end in October 2031. As of December 31, 2019, we leased other facilities in Nashville, Tennessee; Jericho, New York; San Diego, California; Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; and Boulder, Colorado.

None.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “HSTM”. Our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq National Market on April 14, 2000.

 

As of February 21, 2020, the Company had a total of 8,698 shareholders, including 1,018 registered holders and 7,680 beneficial holders.

DIVIDEND POLICY

In our history, we have only declared and paid a dividend one time. In connection with the proceeds from divestiture of the Patient Experience business unit in 2018, we declared a $1.00 per common share special cash dividend, which was paid on April 3, 2018 to shareholders of record on March 6, 2018. We do not anticipate paying normal cash dividends in the future as we intend to retain earnings for use in the operation of our business.

See the table labeled Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans to be contained in our 2020 Proxy Statement, incorporated by reference in Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH

The graph below matches HealthStream, Inc.'s cumulative five-year total shareholder return on common stock with the cumulative total returns of the NASDAQ Composite index and the NASDAQ Computer & Data Processing index. The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment in our common stock and in each index (with the reinvestment of all dividends) from 12/31/2014 to 12/31/2019.

The comparisons in the graph below are based on historical data and are not necessarily indicative of future performance of our common stock.

 

 

12/14

12/15

12/16

12/17

12/18

12/19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HealthStream, Inc.

100.00

74.63

84.97

78.56

85.31

96.08

NASDAQ Composite

100.00

106.96

116.45

150.96

146.67

200.49

NASDAQ Computer & Data Processing

100.00

123.21

132.37

185.07

187.89

262.83

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

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RECENT SALES OF UNREGISTERED SECURITIES

None.

ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

None.

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The selected statement of income and balance sheet data for the five years prior to December 31, 2019 is derived from our audited Consolidated Financial Statements. You should read the following selected financial data in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes to those statements and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included elsewhere in this report.

In February 2018, HealthStream divested its PX business to Press Ganey. The results of operations for the PX are presented as discontinued operations within the Consolidated Statement of Income data set forth below. Additionally, on January 1, 2018, HealthStream adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) and all the related amendments and guidance (collectively, ASC 606), using the modified retrospective method with the cumulative effect of initially applying the guidance recognized upon adoption. On January 1, 2019, HealthStream adopted ASC 842, Leases using the modified retrospective method. The financial information below for the periods prior to adoption of these standards has not been restated and continues to be reported under the revenue recognition and leases standards which were in effect for those periods (ASC 605 and ASC 840, respectively). See Note 1 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this report, for further information.

In addition, HealthStream completed several acquisitions during the five years prior to December 31, 2019, including the acquisitions of HealthLine Systems, Inc. on March 16, 2015, Performance Management Services, Inc. on June 30, 2016, Nursing Registry Consultants Corporation on July 25, 2016, Morrisey Associates, Inc. on August 8, 2016, Providigm, LLC on January 10, 2019, and CredentialMyDoc on December 16, 2019. The results of operations for these acquired companies are included within our Consolidated Statement of Income data effective from the respective dates of acquisition. As a result of these factors, the annual results presented below are not comparable. The operating results for any single year are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future.

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Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

STATEMENT OF INCOME DATA:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues, net

 

$

254,112

 

 

$

231,616

 

 

$

214,899

 

 

$

192,124

 

 

$

174,809

 

Total operating costs and expenses

 

 

239,392

 

 

 

216,125

 

 

 

205,492

 

 

 

184,953

 

 

 

161,641

 

Operating income

 

 

14,720

 

 

 

15,491

 

 

 

9,407

 

 

 

7,171

 

 

 

13,168

 

Income from continuing operations

 

 

14,196

 

 

 

13,251

 

 

 

8,838

 

 

 

4,791

 

 

 

8,273

 

Income from discontinued operations

 

 

1,574

 

 

 

18,966

 

 

 

1,166

 

 

 

(1,036

)

 

 

348

 

Net income

 

 

15,770

 

 

 

32,217

 

 

 

10,004

 

 

 

3,755

 

 

 

8,621

 

PER SHARE DATA (DILUTED):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income from continuing operations

 

$

0.44

 

 

$

0.41

 

 

$

0.27

 

 

$

0.15

 

 

$

0.27

 

Net income (loss) from discontinued operations

 

 

0.05

 

 

 

0.59

 

 

 

0.04

 

 

 

(0.03

)

 

 

0.01

 

Net income

 

 

0.49

 

 

 

1.00

 

 

 

0.31

 

 

 

0.12

 

 

 

0.28

 

Weighted average shares of common stock outstanding

 

 

32,428

 

 

 

32,335

 

 

 

32,196

 

 

 

32,068

 

 

 

30,436

 

Dividends declared

 

 

 

 

 

1.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BALANCE SHEET DATA:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

131,538

 

 

$

134,321

 

 

$

84,768

 

 

$

49,634

 

 

$

82,010

 

Marketable securities

 

 

41,328

 

 

 

34,497

 

 

 

46,350

 

 

 

53,540

 

 

 

66,976

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

27,650

 

 

 

38,124

 

 

 

36,691

 

 

 

40,340

 

 

 

29,654

 

Goodwill and intangible assets

 

 

162,277

 

 

 

145,522

 

 

 

154,641

 

 

 

163,321

 

 

 

113,895

 

Working capital

 

 

119,387

 

 

 

134,581

 

 

 

98,662

 

 

 

82,467

 

 

 

120,459

 

Total assets

 

 

489,544

 

 

 

441,948

 

 

 

411,119

 

 

 

396,000

 

 

 

379,569

 

Deferred revenue – current and noncurrent

 

 

67,429

 

 

 

68,929

 

 

 

71,225

 

 

 

72,115

 

 

 

63,034

 

Operating lease liability, non-current

 

 

30,733

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shareholders’ equity

 

 

338,168

 

 

 

318,947

 

 

 

300,170

 

 

 

286,108

 

 

 

280,320

 

 

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion of the financial condition and results of operations of HealthStream should be read in conjunction with Selected Financial Data and HealthStream’s Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. HealthStream’s actual results may differ significantly from the results discussed and those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including but not limited to the risks described under Risk Factors and elsewhere in this report, as well as additional risks or uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial.

The following discussion addresses our 2019 and 2018 results and year-to-year comparisons between 2019 and 2018. A discussion of 2017 results and year-to-year comparisons between 2018 and 2017 can be found in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on February 25, 2019, under Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

OVERVIEW

HealthStream provides workforce development and provider solutions for healthcare organizations—all designed to support the people that deliver patient care, which in turn, supports the improvement of business and clinical outcomes. Workforce Solutions products are used by healthcare organizations to meet a broad range of their clinical development, talent management, training, certification, competency assessment, and performance appraisal needs. Provider Solutions products are used by healthcare organizations for provider credentialing, privileging, and enrollment needs. HealthStream’s customers include healthcare organizations, pharmaceutical and medical device companies, and other participants in the healthcare industry.

On February 12, 2018, the Company divested its PX business to Press Ganey for $65.2 million in cash (after giving effect to the post-closing working capital adjustment). Prior to the disposition of the PX business, our patient experience solutions products provided our customers information about patients’ experiences and how to improve them, workforce engagement, physician relations, and community perceptions of their services. The historical financial results of the PX business for

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periods prior to the closing of the disposition of the PX business on February 12, 2018 are reflected in the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements as discontinued operations. This sale of the PX business resulted in the Company’s divestiture of the patient experience solutions business segment.

Revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019 were $254.1 million, compared to $231.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of 10%. Operating income decreased by 5% to $14.7 million for 2019, compared to $15.5 million for 2018, and was negatively impacted by the approximately $2.2 million expense associated with the June 2019 stock grant to employees in connection with the contribution of stock by our CEO to the Company to enable such stock grants. Income from continuing operations increased by 7% to $14.2 million for 2019, compared to $13.3 million for 2018. Earnings per share (EPS) from continuing operations were $0.44 per share (diluted) for 2019, compared to $0.41 per share (diluted) for 2018. Net income decreased to $15.8 million for 2019, compared to $32.2 million for 2018, which decrease was primarily driven by the $19.0 million gain, net of tax, recorded on the sale of the PX business in 2018. Earnings per share were $0.49 per share (diluted) for 2019, compared to $1.00 per share (diluted) for 2018. Revenues from Workforce Solutions grew by 10%, or $18.5 million, and revenues from Provider Solutions grew by 10%, or $4.0 million. As of December 31, 2019, the Company had approximately 3.15 million contracted subscriptions to hStreamTM, our Platform-as-a-Service technology. As of December 31, 2019, cash and investment balances approximated $172.9 million, and the Company maintained full availability under its $50.0 million revolving credit facility.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

Revenue Recognition

Revenues are recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to the customer in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring those goods or services.

 

Revenue is recognized based on the following five step model:

 

Identification of the contract with a customer

 

Identification of the performance obligations in the contract

 

Determination of the transaction price

 

Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract

 

Recognition of revenue when, or as, the Company satisfies a performance obligation

 

Subscription services revenues primarily consist of fees in consideration of providing customers access to one or more of our SaaS-based solutions and/or courseware subscriptions, as well as fees related to licensing agreements, all of which include routine customer support and technology enhancements. Revenue is generally recognized over time during the contract term beginning when the service is made available to the customer. Subscription contracts are generally non-cancelable, one to five years in length, and billed annually, semi-annually, quarterly, or monthly in advance.

 

Professional services revenues primarily consist of fees for implementation services, consulting, custom courseware development, and training. The majority of our professional services contracts are billed in advance based on a fixed price basis, and revenue is recognized over time as the services are performed. For both subscription services and professional services, the time between billing the customer and when performance obligations are satisfied is generally not significant.

 

Our contracts with customers often contain promises for multiple goods and services. For these contracts, the Company accounts for the promised goods and services in its contracts as separate performance obligations if they are distinct. The contract price, which represents transaction price, is allocated to the separate performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. We generally determine standalone selling prices based on the standard list price for each product, taking into consideration certain factors, including contract length and the number of subscriptions within the contract.

 

We receive payments from customers based on billing schedules established in our contracts. Accounts receivable - unbilled represent contract assets related to our conditional right to consideration where performance has occurred under the contract. Accounts receivable are primarily comprised of trade receivables that are recorded at the invoice amount, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts, when the right to consideration becomes unconditional.

 

Deferred revenue represents contract liabilities that are recorded when cash payments are received or are due in advance of our satisfaction of performance obligations.

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Accounting for Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method, whereby deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the temporary differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities measured at tax rates that will be in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Management evaluates all available evidence, both positive and negative, to determine whether, based on the weight of that evidence, a valuation allowance is needed. We assess the realizability of our deferred tax assets, and to the extent that we believe a recovery is not likely, we establish a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax asset to the amount we estimate will be recoverable. As of December 31, 2019, the Company established a valuation allowance of $64,000 for the portion of its deferred tax assets that are not more likely than not expected to be realized.

 

Software Development Costs

Capitalized software development includes costs to develop, acquire, and maintain our products and applications, including our SaaS-based workforce development and provider solutions platform products, which are accounted for as internal use software. For internal use software development, once planning is completed and the software development process begins, internal costs and payments to third parties associated with the software development efforts are capitalized when the life expectancy is greater than one year and the anticipated cash flows are expected to exceed the cost of the related asset. During 2019 and 2018, we capitalized $14.1 million and $11.9 million, respectively, for software development and content. Such amounts are included in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets under the caption capitalized software development. The Company amortizes capitalized software development costs over their expected life of generally three years using the straight-line method. Capitalized software development costs are subject to a periodic impairment review in accordance with our impairment review policy.

Goodwill, Intangibles, and Other Long-lived Assets

Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price in a business combination over the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired. We evaluate goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level by assessing whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying value. If this assessment concludes that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, then goodwill is not considered impaired and no further impairment testing is required. Conversely, if the assessment concludes that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, a goodwill impairment test is performed to compare the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value. The Company determines fair value of the reporting units using both income and market-based models. Our models contain significant assumptions and accounting estimates about discount rates, future cash flows, and terminal values that could materially affect our operating results or financial position if they were to change significantly in the future and could result in an impairment. We perform our goodwill impairment assessment whenever events or changes in facts or circumstances indicate that impairment may exist and during the fourth quarter each year. Intangible assets and other long-lived assets are also reviewed for events or changes in facts and circumstances, both internally and externally, which may indicate an impairment is present. We measure any impairment using observable market values or discounted future cash flows from the related long-lived assets. The cash flow estimates and discount rates incorporate management’s best estimates, using appropriate and customary assumptions and projections at the date of evaluation.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

The Company estimates its allowance for doubtful accounts to include accounts that may become uncollectible in the future, along with using a specific identification method in which management considers the facts and circumstances surrounding each potentially uncollectible receivable. Uncollectible receivables are written-off in the period management believes it has exhausted its ability to collect payment from the customer. Bad debt expense is recorded when events or circumstances indicate an additional allowance is required. Our allowance for doubtful accounts totaled $0.8 million and $1.2 million as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Revenues and Expense Components

The following descriptions of the components of revenues and expenses apply to the comparison of results of operations.

Revenues, net. Revenues for our Workforce Solutions business segment primarily consist of the following products and services: provision of services through our SaaS-based platform, authoring tools, a variety of content subscriptions, competency and performance appraisal tools, implementation and consulting services, content development, training, and a variety of other educational activities to serve professionals that work within healthcare organizations. Revenues for our Provider Solutions business segment are generated from our proprietary software and SaaS-based applications to help facilitate provider credentialing, privileging, call center, and enrollment administration for healthcare organizations.

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Cost of Revenues (excluding depreciation and amortization). Cost of revenues (excluding depreciation and amortization) consists primarily of salaries and employee benefits, stock based compensation, employee travel and lodging, materials, contract labor, hosting costs, and other direct expenses associated with revenues, as well as royalties paid by us to content providers based on a percentage of revenues. Personnel costs within cost of revenues are associated with individuals that facilitate product delivery, provide services, handle customer support calls or inquiries, manage the technology infrastructure for our applications, manage content, and provide training or implementation services.

Product Development. Product development consists primarily of salaries and employee benefits, contract labor, stock based compensation, costs associated with the development of new software feature enhancements, new products, and costs associated with maintaining and developing our products. Personnel costs within product development include our systems teams, application development, quality assurance teams, product managers, and other personnel associated with software and product development.

Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing consist primarily of salaries and employee benefits, commissions, stock based compensation, employee travel and lodging, advertising, trade shows, customer conferences, promotions, and related marketing costs. Personnel costs within sales and marketing include our sales teams and marketing personnel.

Other General and Administrative Expenses. Other general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and employee benefits, stock based compensation, employee travel and lodging, facility expenses, office expenses, fees for professional services, business development and acquisition related costs, third party software licensing for internal use, and other operational expenses. Personnel costs within general and administrative expenses include individuals associated with normal corporate functions (accounting, legal, business development, human resources, administrative, internal information systems, and executive management).

Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization consist of fixed asset depreciation, amortization of intangibles considered to have definite lives, and amortization of capitalized software development.

Other Income (Expense), Net. The primary component of other income is interest income related to interest earned on cash, cash equivalents, and investments in marketable securities. The primary component of other expense is interest expense related to our revolving credit facility. In addition, the income or loss attributed to equity method investments and fair value adjustments related to non-marketable equity investments is included in this category.

2019 Compared to 2018

Revenues, net. Revenues increased approximately $22.5 million, or 10%, to $254.1 million for 2019 from $231.6 million for 2018. A comparison of revenues by business segment is as follows (in thousands):

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

Revenues by Business Segment:

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

Percentage

Change

 

Workforce Solutions

 

$

208,599

 

 

$

190,139

 

 

 

10

%

Provider Solutions

 

 

45,513

 

 

 

41,477

 

 

 

10

%

Total revenues, net

 

$

254,112

 

 

$

231,616

 

 

 

10

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

% of Revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Workforce Solutions

 

 

82

%

 

 

82

%

 

 

 

 

Provider Solutions

 

 

18

%

 

 

18

%

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues for Workforce Solutions, which are primarily subscription-based, increased $18.5 million, or 10%, to $208.6 million for 2019 from $190.1 million for 2018. Revenues in 2019 were positively impacted by higher revenues from our legacy resuscitation products, which were $58.9 million for 2019 compared to $54.6 million for 2018, and growth in platform and content subscriptions. The acquisition of Providigm, LLC in January 2019 also added $6.9 million of revenue to 2019. At December 31, 2019, the Company had 3.15 million contracted subscriptions to hStreamTM, our Platform-as-a-Service technology as compared to 1.51 million contracted subscriptions at December 31, 2018.

Revenues for Provider Solutions increased $4.0 million, or 10%, to $45.5 million for 2019 from $41.5 million for 2018. Revenue growth in 2019 was primarily a result of new VerityStream subscriptions and professional services for client implementations.

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Cost of Revenues (excluding depreciation and amortization). Cost of revenues increased $7.9 million, or 8%, to $103.9 million for 2019 from $96.0 million for 2018. Cost of revenues as a percentage of revenues was 41% of revenues for both 2019 and 2018.

Cost of revenues for Workforce Solutions increased $6.2 million to $88.6 million and approximated 42% and 43% of revenues for Workforce Solutions for 2019 and 2018, respectively. The increase in expense primarily resulted from increased royalties paid by us resulting from growth in content subscription revenues, additions to personnel during 2019, operating expenses associated with the Providigm business acquired in January 2019, and stock based compensation related to the stock awards granted during the three months ended June 30, 2019 in connection with the contribution of stock by our chief executive officer to enable such grants. Cost of revenues for Provider Solutions increased $1.7 million to $15.3 million and approximated 34% and 33% of Provider Solutions revenues for 2019 and 2018, respectively. The increase is primarily associated with additions to personnel and increased hosting costs.

Product Development. Product development expenses increased $3.4 million, or 13%, to $29.1 million for 2019 from $25.7 million for 2018. Product development expenses as a percentage of revenues were 11% of revenues for both 2019 and 2018.

Product development expenses for Workforce Solutions increased $3.0 million to $23.9 million and approximated 11% of revenues for Workforce Solutions for both 2019 and 2018. The increase is primarily due to additions to personnel during 2019, the Providigm acquisition, and stock based compensation related to the stock awards granted during the three months ended June 30, 2019 as noted above. Product development expenses for Provider Solutions increased $0.4 million to $5.2 million and approximated 11% and 12% of revenues for Provider Solutions for 2019 and 2018, respectively. The increase is primarily due to additions to personnel during 2019 as well as stock based compensation related to the stock awards granted during the three months ended June 30, 2019 as noted above.

Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expenses, including personnel costs, increased $2.2 million, or 6%, to $37.9 million for 2019 from $35.7 million for 2018. Sales and marketing expenses were 15% of revenues for both 2019 and 2018.

Sales and marketing expenses for Workforce Solutions increased $2.2 million to $30.6 million and approximated 15% of revenues for Workforce Solutions for both 2019 and 2018. The increase is primarily due to higher sales commissions consistent with the increase in revenues, stock based compensation related to the stock awards granted during the three months ended June 30, 2019 as noted above, and sales and marketing expense associated with the Providigm business acquired in January 2019. Sales and marketing expenses for Provider Solutions increased $0.1 million to $6.2 million and approximated 14% and 15% of revenues for Provider Solutions for 2019 and 2018, respectively. The increase in expense is primarily due to higher marketing expenses. The unallocated corporate portion of sales and marketing expenses decreased by $48,000 to $1.1 million for 2019.

Other General and Administrative Expenses. Other general and administrative expenses increased $6.2 million, or 18%, to $40.6 million for 2019 from $34.4 million for 2018. Other general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenues were 16% and 15% of revenues for 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Other general and administrative expenses for Workforce Solutions increased $4.7 million to $14.4 million and approximated 7% and 5% of revenues for Workforce Solutions for 2019 and 2018, respectively. The increase is primarily due to higher personnel costs, increased software expenses, higher facilities expense, and the Providigm acquisition. Other general and administrative expenses for Provider Solutions decreased $1.0 million to $3.6 million and approximated 8% and 11% of revenues for Provider Solutions for 2019 and 2018, respectively. The decrease is primarily due to a reduction in contract labor and a reduction in facilities expense. The unallocated corporate portion of other general and administrative expenses increased approximately $2.5 million to $22.6 million over 2018, primarily due to increases to personnel, software expense, other administrative costs, and stock based compensation related to the stock awards granted during the three months ended June 30, 2019 as noted above.

Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization increased $3.7 million, or 15%, to $27.9 million for 2019 from $24.2 million for 2018. The increase resulted from higher depreciation of property and equipment related to the relocation to our new corporate headquarters, higher amortization of capitalized software development, and amortization of intangibles following our acquisitions of Providigm and CredentialMyDoc in January 2019 and December 2019, respectively.

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Other Income, Net. Other income, net was $3.2 million for 2019 compared to $1.1 million for 2018. The increase is due to the $1.3 million decline in the carrying value of non-marketable equity investments recorded in 2018 coupled with higher interest income from cash and investments in marketable securities.

Income Tax Provision. The Company recorded a provision for income taxes of $3.7 million for 2019 compared to $3.3 million for 2018. The Company’s effective tax rate was 21% for 2019 compared to 20% for 2018. The increase in income tax expense during 2019 is primarily attributable to the increase in pre-tax income in 2019.

Income from Continuing Operations. Income from continuing operations was $14.2 million for 2019 compared to $13.3 million for 2018. Earnings per diluted share from continuing operations were $0.44 and $0.41 per share for 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Income from Discontinued Operations. On February 12, 2018, the Company divested its PX business to Press Ganey for $65.2 million in cash (after giving effect to the post-closing working capital adjustment), resulting in a gain, net of tax, of $1.6 million in 2019 and $19.0 million in 2018.

Net Income. Net income decreased approximately $16.4 million, or 51%, to $15.8 million for 2019 compared to $32.2 million for 2018. The decrease resulted primarily from the gain on the sale of the PX business in 2018 as noted above. Earnings per diluted share were $0.49 per share for 2019, compared to $1.00 per share for 2018.

Adjusted EBITDA (a non-GAAP financial measure which we define as net income before interest, income taxes, stock based compensation, depreciation and amortization, and changes in fair value of non-marketable equity investments) from continuing operations increased 13% to $46.9 million for 2019 compared to $41.5 million for 2018.

Adjusted EBITDA decreased 31% to $48.9 million for 2019 compared to $71.1 million for 2018. The decrease resulted primarily from the gain on the sale of the PX business in 2018 as noted above. See Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures below for our reconciliation of this calculation to measures under US GAAP.

Other Developments

Our legacy agreements with Laerdal (the “Legacy Agreements”) for the HeartCode and Resuscitation Quality Improvement (“RQI”) products expired pursuant to their terms on December 31, 2018. Revenues associated with sales of HeartCode and RQI products pursuant to the Legacy Agreements have been significant in recent years, although margins on such products have been lower than HealthStream’s average margin. Revenue generated by HeartCode and RQI products pursuant to the Legacy Agreements was $58.9 million and $54.6 million in 2019 and 2018, respectively. In 2020, we expect the revenue from these products generated pursuant to the Legacy Agreements to be approximately $36 million, with quarterly revenues in 2020 anticipated to be as follows: approximately $11.0 million in the first quarter, approximately $10.5 million in the second quarter, approximately $8.5 million in the third quarter, and approximately $6.0 million in the fourth quarter. We also continue to expect revenue from HeartCode and RQI products sold pursuant to the Legacy Agreements to be approximately zero in the first quarter of 2021.

On December 6, 2018, we announced a new agreement with RQI Partners, a joint venture between Laerdal and the American Heart Association. This agreement with RQI Partners was not an extension or renewal of the expired Legacy Agreements with Laerdal and should not be construed as such. Under our agreement with RQI Partners, HealthStream will neither market nor sell HeartCode or RQI. Our RQI Partners agreement provides for continuity of service for customers that desire to purchase HeartCode or RQI from RQI Partners after December 31, 2018 and receive it via the HealthStream Learning Center. RQI Partners will remit a fee to us when new sales of HeartCode and RQI are delivered via the HealthStream Learning Center. This fee will not be sufficient to supplant the revenue runout associated with the Legacy Agreements, and no material revenues have been recognized under this agreement through December 31, 2019.

We remain actively engaged in efforts to broaden the scope and utilization of our simulation-related offerings to include a range of clinical competencies that extend beyond resuscitation, and we intend to bring to market a broadened scope of simulation-based offerings, including resuscitation programs. On January 17, 2019, as part of a seven-year collaboration agreement with the American Red Cross which spans to 2026, we announced the launch of the American Red Cross Resuscitation Suite. We are actively engaged in efforts to market, sell, and deliver our new resuscitation offering, which includes the American Red Cross Resuscitation Suite and validation of skills through a technology enabled Innosonian manikin. A growing number of customers have been implemented on our new resuscitation offering and the solution is gaining acceptance in the market. We believe our efforts to market, sell, and deliver the American Red Cross Resuscitation Suite, along with efforts to bring additional simulation-related offerings to market, have the potential to give rise to

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additional and higher margin opportunities than those that existed under the Legacy Agreements. However, there is no assurance that we will be successful in these efforts, and to the extent that new simulation-based or other solutions do not generate revenue and/or earnings in a manner that supplants the impact of the Legacy Agreements, our revenue and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures

This report contains certain non-GAAP financial measures, including non-GAAP net income, non-GAAP operating income, adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations, and adjusted EBITDA, which are used by management in analyzing our financial results and ongoing operational performance.

In order to better assess the Company’s financial results, management believes that net income before interest, income taxes, stock based compensation, depreciation and amortization, and changes in fair value of non-marketable equity investments (“adjusted EBITDA”) is a useful measure for evaluating the operating performance of the Company because adjusted EBITDA reflects net income adjusted for certain non-cash and/or non-operating items. Management also believes that adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations is a useful measure for evaluating the operating performance of the Company because such measure excludes the results of operations of the PX business that we no longer own and the gain on sale in connection with the sale of such business in February 2018 and thus reflects the Company’s ongoing business operations and assists in comparing the Company’s results of operations between periods. We also believe that adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations are useful to many investors to assess the Company’s ongoing results from current operations. Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations are non-GAAP financial measures and should not be considered as measures of financial performance under GAAP. Because adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations are not measurements determined in accordance with GAAP, such non-GAAP financial measures are susceptible to varying calculations. Accordingly, adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations, as presented, may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies.

These non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered as a substitute for, or superior to, measures of financial performance which are prepared in accordance with US GAAP and may be different from non-GAAP financial measures used by other companies and have limitations as analytical tools.  

A reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations to the most directly comparable GAAP measures is set forth below (in thousands).

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

GAAP income from continuing operations

 

$

14,196

 

 

$

13,251

 

 

$

8,838

 

Interest income

 

 

(3,272

)

 

 

(2,444

)

 

 

(870

)

Interest expense

 

 

102

 

 

 

130

 

 

 

132

 

Income tax provision

 

 

3,733

 

 

 

3,324

 

 

 

1,302

 

Stock based compensation expense

 

 

4,244

 

 

 

1,777

 

 

 

1,736

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

27,869

 

 

 

24,231

 

 

 

24,047

 

Change in fair value of non-marketable equity investments

 

 

 

 

 

1,271

 

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations

 

$

46,872

 

 

$

41,540

 

 

$

35,185

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GAAP net income

 

$

15,770

 

 

$

32,217

 

 

$

10,004

 

Interest income

 

 

(3,272

)

 

 

(2,444

)

 

 

(870

)

Interest expense

 

 

102

 

 

 

130

 

 

 

131

 

Income tax provision

 

 

4,212

 

 

 

13,783

 

 

 

529

 

Stock based compensation expense

 

 

4,244

 

 

 

1,686

 

 

 

1,852

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

27,869

 

 

 

24,412

 

 

 

26,283

 

Change in fair value of non-marketable equity investments

 

 

 

 

 

1,271

 

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

 

$

48,925

 

 

$

71,055

 

 

$

37,929

 

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FINANCIAL OUTLOOK FOR 2020

The Company provides projections and other forward-looking information in this Financial Outlook for 2020 section within Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. This section contains many forward-looking statements, particularly relating to the Company’s future financial performance. These forward-looking statements are estimates based on information currently available to the Company, are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, and are subject to the precautionary statements set forth in the introduction in Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the risks and uncertainties described in Item 1A, Risk Factors and elsewhere in this report, as well as additional risks or uncertainties not presently known by us, or that we currently deem immaterial. Actual results are likely to differ, and in the past have differed, materially from those forecast by the Company, depending on the outcome of various factors, including, but not limited to, those set forth in Item 1A, Risk Factors.

 

We are providing 2020 financial guidance as set forth below:

 

Full-Year 2020 Guidance

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Workforce Solutions

$

197.0

 

-

$

203.0

 

million

Provider Solutions

 

50.5

 

-

 

52.5

 

million

Consolidated

$

247.5

 

-

$

255.5

 

million

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Income

$

12.0

 

-

$

14.5

 

million

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capital Expenditures

$

24.0

 

-

$

26.0

 

million

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annual Effective Income Tax Rate

 

23

 

-

 

25

 

percent

Our 2020 Workforce Solutions revenue guidance includes anticipated revenues of approximately $36.0 million from our legacy resuscitation products, representing a decline of $23.0 million from 2019. We expect the quarterly revenues from the legacy products to be as follows: approximately $11.0 million in first quarter, approximately $10.5 million in second quarter, approximately $8.5 million in third quarter, approximately $6.0 million in fourth quarter, and approximately zero thereafter. Our Provider Solutions revenue guidance includes approximately $1.5 million from the recently acquired CredentialMyDoc business.

Our operating income guidance of $12.0 million to $14.5 million is impacted by the anticipated reduction in legacy resuscitation revenues noted above coupled with an anticipated operating loss of $1.0 million related to the CredentialMyDoc acquisition. Also included in operating income guidance is a one-time favorable contractual adjustment of $3.4 million to royalties expense resulting from our resolution of a mutual disagreement relating to various elements of a past partnership, which adjustment will be recorded in the first quarter of 2020.

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SELECTED QUARTERLY OPERATING RESULTS

The following tables set forth selected statements of income data for each of the four quarters in the periods ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively. The information for each quarter has been prepared on the same basis as the audited statements included in other parts of this report and, in our opinion, includes all adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation of the results of operations for these periods. You should read this information in conjunction with HealthStream’s Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this report. The operating results for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future. Revenues from our subscription-based products are recognized ratably over the subscription term.

 

 

Quarter Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

September 30,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2019

 

 

2019

 

 

2019

 

 

 

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

STATEMENT OF INCOME DATA:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues, net

 

$

65,187

 

 

$

63,781

 

 

$

62,450

 

 

$

62,695

 

Total operating costs and expenses

 

 

59,818

 

 

 

61,513

 

 

 

58,702

 

 

 

59,358

 

Operating income

 

 

5,369

 

 

 

2,268

 

 

 

3,748

 

 

 

3,337

 

Income from continuing operations

 

 

4,780

 

 

 

2,401

 

 

 

3,461

 

 

 

3,554

 

Income from discontinued operations

 

 

1,194

 

 

 

 

 

 

251

 

 

 

129

 

Net income

 

$

5,974

 

 

$

2,401

 

 

$

3,712

 

 

$

3,683

 

Net income per share - diluted (1):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continuing operations

 

$

0.15

 

 

$

0.07

 

 

$

0.11

 

 

$

0.11

 

Discontinued operations

 

 

0.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income per share - diluted

 

$

0.18

 

 

$

0.07

 

 

$

0.11

 

 

$

0.11

 

Weighted average shares of common stock outstanding - diluted

 

 

32,377

 

 

 

32,434

 

 

 

32,437

 

 

 

32,465

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quarter Ended

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

September 30,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2018

 

 

2018

 

 

2018

 

 

 

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

STATEMENT OF INCOME DATA:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues, net

 

$

54,858

 

 

$

57,008

 

 

$

59,925

 

 

$

59,825

 

Total operating costs and expenses

 

 

51,128

 

 

 

52,744

 

 

 

55,264